spinal cord

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cord

 [kord]
any long, cylindrical, flexible structure; called also chord, chorda, and funiculus.
spermatic cord the structure extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, comprising the pampiniform plexus, nerves, ductus deferens, testicular artery, and other vessels.
spinal cord see spinal cord.
tethered cord a congenital anomaly resulting from defective closure of the neural tube; the conus medullaris is abnormally low and tethered by a short, thickened filum terminale, fibrous bands, intradural lipoma, or some other intradural abnormality. Surgical correction in infancy or early childhood is necessary to prevent progressive neurological deficit in the lower limb and bladder dysfunction.
umbilical cord see umbilical cord.
vocal c's see vocal cords.

spinal

 [spi´nal]
1. pertaining to a spine.
2. pertaining to the vertebral column.
spinal cord that part of the central nervous system lodged in the spinal canal, extending from the foramen magnum to the upper part of the lumbar region. It is composed of an inner core of gray substance in which nerve cells predominate and an outer layer of white substance in which myelinated nerve fibers predominate. Called also medulla spinalis. (See Plates and see accompanying figures.)
Gross anatomy of the spinal cord. From Applegate, 2000.
Cross section of the spinal cord. From Applegate, 2000.

spi·nal cord

[TA]
the elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.

spinal cord

n.
The thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla oblongata down through the spinal column and from which the spinal nerves branch off to various parts of the body.

spinal cord

a long, nearly cylindric structure lodged in the vertebral canal and extending from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the upper part of the lumbar region. A major component of the central nervous system, the adult cord is approximately 1 cm in diameter, with an average length of 42 to 45 cm and a weight of 30 g. The cord is an extension of the medulla oblongata of the brain that extends at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra. The cord conducts sensory and motor impulses to and from the brain and controls many reflexes. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves originate from the cord: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. It has an inner core of gray material consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies. The cord is enclosed by three protective membranes (meninges): the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. Also called chorda spinalis, medulla spinalis. See also segments of spinal cord, spinal nerves.
enlarge picture
Cross section of the spinal cord

spi·nal cord

(spī'năl kōrd) [TA]
The elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.
Synonym(s): medulla spinalis.

spinal cord

Enlarge picture
SPINAL CORD: Cross-section with nerve roots on left side and examples of tracts on right side
Part of the central nervous system, the spinal cord is an ovoid column of nerve tissue 40 to 50 cm long that extends from the medulla to the second lumbar vertebra; it is within the spinal (vertebral) canal, protected by bone, and directly enclosed in the meninges. The center of the cord is gray matter in the shape of the letter H; it consists of the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. The ventral (anterior) horns of the gray matter contain cell bodies of somatic motor neurons; the dorsal (posterior) horns contain cell bodies of interneurons. The white matter is arranged in tracts around the gray matter. It consists of myelinated axons that transmit impulses to and from the brain, or between levels of gray matter in the spinal cord, or that will leave the cord as part of peripheral nerves. The spinal cord is the pathway for sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain; it also mediates stretch reflexes and the defecation and urination reflexes. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord and innervate the trunk and limbs. See: illustration

spinal cord

The downward continuation of the BRAINSTEM that lies within a canal in the spine (VERTEBRAL COLUMN). The cord is a cylinder of nerve tissue about 45 cm long containing bundles of nerve fibre tracts running up and down, to and from the brain. These tracts form SYNAPSES with the 62 spinal nerves that emerge in pairs from either side of the cord, between adjacent vertebrae, and carry nerve impulses to and from all parts of the trunk and the limbs.

spinal cord

a cable-like nervous structure in vertebrates, enclosed in the backbone and extending the full length of the body behind the head. Pairs of spinal nerves leave the cord in each segment of the body The cord forms part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and contains many NERVE CELLS and bundles of fibres, many associated with simple REFLEX ARCS, others with the brain. Coordination of movement of various parts of the body is brought about in the spinal cord.

Spinal cord

Elongated nerve bundles that lie in the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge.
Mentioned in: Coccyx Injuries
Section of the spinal cord.
Figure 1: Efferent nerve pathways from the brainstem and spinal cord. Shown on the right: somatic, to skeletal muscles. Shown on the left: autonomic. B brain stem, C cervical, T thoracic, L lumbar, S sacral segments of the spinal cord. (Red shaded regions are those with no autonomic outflow.)

spinal cord

the part of the central nervous system that extends, in continuity with the brain, from the base of the skull down the vertebral (spinal) canal as far as the top of the second lumbar vertebra. Surrounded by the membranous tube of the meninges (in continuity with the coverings of the brain) and bathed within this by cerebrospinal fluid. Consists of nerve cells (grey matter) and nerve tracts (white matter). Anterior (efferent) and posterior (afferent) spinal nerve roots leave and enter through the intervertebral foramina, linking it to the peripheral nervous system. See also vertebral column; Figure 1.

spi·nal cord

(spī'năl kōrd) [TA]
The elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.
Synonym(s): medulla spinalis.

spinal cord

that part of the central nervous system lodged in the spinal canal, extending from the foramen magnum to a point in the lumbar or sacral vertebrae, depending on the species.

spinal cord abscess
see spinal abscess.
spinal cord atrophy
diminution in mass of the entire cord, is usually the hallmark of undernutrition or old age, or both.
spinal cord compression
may be gradual due to space-occupying lesion of vertebral canal, such as abscess, callus of a fracture, or a tumor, or acute due to fracture dislocation or thrombosis. In general, clinical signs include paresis or paralysis, but depending on the level of the spinal cord involved and the type of lesion present there may also be urinary incontinence, loss of sensation, Horner's syndrome, and in acute lesions, spinal shock.
spinal cord degeneration
spinal cord hemorrhage
spinal cord hypoplasia
usually segmental, especially in the lumbar area.
spinal cord local ischemia
caused by embolus of a spinal artery; has the same effect as traumatic injury (see below).
spinal cord tracts
more or less distinct bundles of fibers within the white matter of the spinal cord. There are three funiculi on each side of the cord—dorsal, lateral and ventral; subdivisions within the funiculi include eleven major tracts—gracile and cuneate fasciculi, lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts, rubrospinal tract, dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts, lateral and ventral spinothalamic tracts, elementary apparatus fibers, ventral corticospinal tract, vestibulospinal tract.
spinal cord traumatic injury
fracture or dislocation of one or more vertebrae; causes a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis in the area supplied with nerves from the injured segment and spastic paralysis in the parts supplied by the cord segments caudal to the injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
To prevent possible contamination by the spread of tainted spinal marrow, the ministry ordered thorough washing of carcasses and slaughtering tools.
The health ministry will ask each prefectural government about whether the slaughterhouses in their prefectures extract the spinal marrow.
said Thursday it has developed a device to quickly remove most of the spinal marrow from cows, one of the organs prone to infection with mad cow disease.