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See spina.


(spi'na) plural.spinae [L. spina, thorn]
1. Any spinelike protuberance.
2. The spine.

spina bifida

Spina bifida cystica.

spina bifida cystica

A congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal caused by a lack of union between the laminae of the vertebrae during embryonic development. The lumbar portion is the section chiefly affected. It is found in approx. 18 of every 100,000 births. Like other neural tube defects, it can be prevented with folic acid supplementation (800 mg daily) taken by women before and during pregnancy. The consequences of this defect may include urinary incontinence, saddle or limb anesthesia, gait disturbances, and structural changes in the pelvis. Synonym: rachischisis

spina bifida occulta

A failure of the vertebrae to close without hernial protrusion.
References in periodicals archive ?
The therapist should also take into consideration the different functional roles of the upper erector spinae and lumbar erector spinae when developing rehabilitation programmes.
The various erector spinae muscle actions (isometric, concentric and eccentric) during lifting and lowering should also be given suitable consideration when designing back exercise programmes.
This clinical commentary has highlighted the implications that lumbar posture has on the mechanical loads placed on the active and passive tissues of the spine, and the contribution of the erector spinae during tasks involving lifting and lowering.
End range of lumbar flexion should be avoided as it recruits the passive tissues of the lumbar spine and alters erector spinae geometry.
Exercise programmes should target the different functional roles of the upper and lumbar erector spinae during lifting and lowering, and incorporate static and dynamic muscle training appropriate for controlling lumbar posture.
Floyd WF and Silver PH (1955) The function of the erectores spinae muscles in certain movements and postures in man.
Holmes JA, Damaser MS and Lehman SL (1992) Erector spinae activation and movement dynamics about the lumbar spine in lordotic and kyphotic squat-lifting.
Kippers V and Parker AW (1984) Posture related to myoelectric silence of erectores spinae during trunk flexion.
Macintosh JE and Bogduk N (1987) The morphology of the lumbar erector spinae.
Macintosh JE and Bogduk N (1991) The attachments of the lumbar erector spinae.