Instead, the Hemicloea copulatory and fertilization ducts are connected with the spherical spermatheca (Fig.
The spermatheca is a spherical sack that from one side is connected with the copulatory duct and from the other--the fertilization duct.
Protein elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-[alpha]), which is differentially expressed in the spermatheca of fertilized queens, is important in promoting protein biosynthesis in eukaryotic cells as well as in regulating apoptosis (andersen et al.
therefor, the expression of p450 in the spermatheca of fertilized A.
sexdens rubropilosa queens demonstrates a possible transfer from the male seminal fluid to the female spermatheca during copulation.
Females have paired copulatory ducts, each leading to a spermatheca, and males have paired intromittent organs (emboli).
01), we considered only the right spermatheca and copulatory duct of each female, thereby avoiding pseudoreplication.
We estimated the probability of a first embolus tip to enter the spermatheca as the percentage of females with an embolus tip located inside the spermatheca out of the total number of females with one embolus tip found in their right genitalia.
Although a valve at the base of each spermatheca (Fritz & Turner 2002) helps prevent the loss of sperm during dissection, it is important to dissect flies in insect saline to prevent water from entering the sperm storage organs and expelling any sperm through turgor pressure.
After sonication, each spermatheca and the ventral receptacle were transferred (by micropipette) to the surface of a glass slide and washed quickly in 3 separate drops of de-ionized water to remove the insect saline, remove female sources of DNA from the cells ruptured by sonication, and remove SDS (which might interfere with PCR).
For example, if 2 males homozygous for different alleles mate with the same female and contribute sperm to a particular spermatheca, then the relative peak heights (or areas) provide a good estimate of the relative contributions of each male's sperm.
The size at onset sexual maturity in brachyurans can be evaluated considering different criteria, including growth allometry, gonad development stages, presence of spermatic bags or sperm in spermathecas
, vestige eggs on the ovigerous areas or the presence of eggs in the abdomen as was analyzed by several authors (Brown & Powell 1972, Campbell & Eagles 1983, Lopez Greco et al.