specular microscope

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specular microscope

A camera that takes high-magnification images of the cellular layer of the inner surface of the cornea. It is used, e.g., to evaluate the healing of the corneal epithelium after corneal injury or corneal surgery (“keratectomy”).
See also: microscope


Return or bending of light by a surface such that it continues to travel in the same medium.
angle of reflection See angle of reflection.
diffuse reflection Reflection from a surface that is not polished and light is reflected in many or all directions (Fig. R4). Syn. irregular reflection. See diffusion; glossmeter; matt surface.
direct reflection See specular reflection.
reflection factor See reflectance.
irregular reflection See diffuse reflection.
law of reflection See law of reflection.
mixed reflection The simultaneous occurrence of diffuse and specular reflection.
regular reflection See specular reflection.
specular reflection Reflection from a polished surface in which there is no scattering and light travels back in a definite direction (Fig. R4). Syn. direct reflection; regular reflection. See specular microscope.
surface reflection Light reflected at a surface according to Fresnel's formula.
total reflection Reflection occurring when light is incident at an angle greater than the critical angle. Syn. total internal reflection. See reflecting prism.
total internal reflection See total reflection.
Fig. R4 A, specular reflection; the angle of incidence i is equal to the angle of reflection i ′. B, diffuse reflectionenlarge picture
Fig. R4 A, specular reflection; the angle of incidence i is equal to the angle of reflection i′. B, diffuse reflection


an instrument used to obtain an enlarged image of small objects and reveal details of structure not otherwise distinguishable.

acoustic microscope
one using very high frequency ultrasound waves, which are focused on the object; the reflected beam is converted to an image by electronic processing.
binocular microscope
one with two eyepieces, permitting use of both eyes simultaneously.
bright-field microscope
the standard bench microscope used in histology and requiring stained tissue sections.
compound microscope
the standard laboratory microscope used in veterinary science; consists of a two lens system whereby the image formed by the system near the object (objective) is magnified by the one nearer the eye (eyepiece).
darkfield microscope
used for examining unstained, often living cells, in which light is only directed into the objective lens if it is deflected by an object in its path. The object is thus viewed as a white structure in an otherwise black (darkfield) background.
electron microscope
one using an electron beam of very short wavelength as the source of illumination. It has a resolving power of 2 nm (which is 100 times greater than with the light microscope). Includes the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope (below). See also immunoelectron microscopy.
fluorescence microscope
one used for the examination of specimens stained with fluorochromes or fluorochrome complexes, e.g. a fluorescein-labeled antibody, which fluoresces in ultraviolet light. See also fluorescence microscopy.
interference microscope
a microscope similar to the phase contrast microscope but delivers a three-dimensional image. Called also Nomarski interference phase microscope.
light microscope
used for examining unstained or stained particles or the cellular structure of tissues that have been cut into sections and stained. It has a resolving power of 0.2 μm. Modern light microscopes have an eyepiece and objective lenses which provide magnification, and a condenser beneath the stage which gathers and focuses light on the object being examined.
operating microscope
one designed for use in performance of delicate surgical procedures, e.g. on the middle ear, eye or small vessels of the heart.
phase microscope, phase-contrast microscope
a form of light microscope useful for examining living, unstained structures, including animal cells and bacteria, e.g. leptospira. The phase of the light wave passing through different structures in the cell, e.g. nucleus vs. thin part of the cytoplasm, is changed by different amounts and thereby provides contrast.
polarizing microscope
based on the phenomenon of birefringence; useful in the study of bone and muscle.
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
an electron microscope that produces a high-magnification image of the surface of a metal-coated specimen (shadow casting) by scanning an electron beam and building up an image from the electrons reflected at each point. Particularly useful for determining the three-dimensional structure of objects.
simple microscope
one that consists of a single lens.
specular microscope
one used in the examination of the corneal endothelium.
stereoscopic microscope
a binocular microscope modified to give a three-dimensional view of the specimen.
surgical microscope
see operating microscope (above).
transmission electron microscope, TEM
one that resembles an inverted light microscope in that the beam of electrons generated from a heated filament at the top of the instrument passes down through a column where it is focused by magnetic coils (lenses) and is differentially scattered when it passes through the specimen. The image is recorded either on a photographic plate or on a phosphorescent screen.
ultraviolet microscope
uses an ultraviolet light source; useful in histochemical studies; only photographic images are available.
References in periodicals archive ?
This research report categorizes the global ophthalmology devices market into the following segments: Global Ophthalmology Devices Market, by Type - Diagnostic and Monitoring Devices Market - Optical Coherence Tomographers (OCT) - Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging systems - Fundus cameras - Ophthalmoscopes - Retinoscopes - Wavefront aberrometer - Corneal topographer - Autorefractors/Phoropters - Pachymeters - Keratometers - Specular microscopes - Biometers - Visual field analysers/Perimeter - Tonometers - Slit lamps - Optotype projectors - Dioptometers
com/research/w99zfk/ophthalmology) has announced the addition of the "2014 Report on the International Ophthalmology Diagnostics and Surgical Devices (Optical Coherence Tomography, Echography, Corneal Topographers, Specular Microscopes, Cataract, Refractive, Glaucoma and Vitreoretinal Surgery) Market - Forecast to 2019" report to their offering.
While, the diagnostic devices market has been further classified into fourteen major devices namely, autorefractometers, slit lamps, tonometers, ophthalmoscopes, fundus cameras, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, Echography systems, Keratometers, Gonioscopes, Pachymeters, perimeters, corneal topographers and specular microscopes.