Hormone

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hormone

 [hor´mōn]
a chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream to the cells and organs on which it has a specific regulatory effect. adj., adj hormo´nal. Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes, and even mental conditions and personality traits are dependent on hormones.

Hormones are produced by various organs and body tissues, but mainly by the endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, and gonads (testes and ovaries). Each gland apparently synthesizes several kinds of hormones; the adrenal glands alone produce more than 25 varieties. The total number of hormones is still unknown, but each has its unique function and its own chemical formula. After a hormone is discharged by its parent gland into the capillaries or the lymph, it may travel a circuitous path through the bloodstream to exert influence on cells, tissues, and organs (target organs) far removed from its site of origin.

One of the best-known endocrine hormones is insulin, a protein manufactured by the beta cells of the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas that is important in carbohydrate metabolism. Other important hormones are thyroxine, an iodine-carrying amino acid produced by the thyroid gland; cortisone, a member of the steroid family from the adrenal glands; and the sex hormones, estrogen from the ovaries and androgen from the testes. Certain hormone substances can be synthesized in the laboratory for treatment of human disease. Animal hormones can also be used, as endocrine hormones are to some extent interchangeable among species. Extracts from the pancreas of cattle, for example, enabled diabetes sufferers to live normal lives even before the chemistry of insulin was fully understood.

Endocrine hormone synthesis and secretion is controlled and regulated by a closed-loop system. Negative feedback loops maintain optimal levels of each hormone in the body. If there are abnormally high levels of a hormone in the blood, feedback to the gland responsible for its production inhibits secretion. If there are abnormally low levels, the gland is stimulated to step up production and secretion. In this way a homeostatic balance is maintained. (See also endocrine glands.)
adrenocortical hormone
1. any of the corticosteroids secreted by the adrenal cortex, the major ones being the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and including some androgens, progesterone, and estrogens.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) corticotropin.
adrenomedullary h's substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
androgenic hormone androgen.
anterior pituitary hormone any of the protein or polypeptide hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, including growth hormone, thyrotropin, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and corticotropin.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) vasopressin.
corpus luteum hormone progesterone.
cortical hormone corticosteroid.
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) a neuropeptide secreted by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that binds to specific receptors on the corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary and stimulates the secretion of corticotropin.
ectopic h's those secreted by tumors of nonendocrine tissues but having the same physiologic effects as their normally produced counterparts. It is not known exactly how the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones from nonendocrine tissues occurs. Most of these tumors are derived from tissues that have a common embryonic origin with endocrine tissues. When the cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they can revert to a more primitive stage of development and begin to synthesize hormones.

Ectopic hormones present serious problems for patients and add to the complexity of caring for those with certain kinds of neoplastic diseases. These hormones do not respond to the feedback mechanisms that regulate normal hormonal production; hence, surgery and destruction of the tumorous tissue by radiation and chemotherapy are the treatments of choice.
estrogenic hormone estrogen.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) one of the gonadotropins of the anterior pituitary, which stimulates the growth and maturity of graafian follicles in the ovary, and stimulates spermatogenesis in the male.
follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (FSH/LH-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
follicle-stimulating hormone–releasing hormone (FSH-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
gonadotropic hormone gonadotropin.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone.
growth hormone (GH) any of several related polypeptide hormones secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that directly influence protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and control the rate of skeletal and visceral growth; their secretion is in part controlled by the hypothalamus. It is used pharmaceutically as somatrem and somatropin. Called also somatotrophin, somatotropin, and somatotrophic or somatotropic hormone.
growth hormone release–inhibiting hormone somatostatin.
growth hormone–releasing hormone (GH-RH) a neuropeptide elaborated by the median eminence of the hypothalamus that binds to specific receptors on the somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary and stimulates the secretion of growth hormone.
interstitial cell–stimulating hormone luteinizing hormone.
lactation hormone (lactogenic hormone) prolactin.
local hormone a substance with hormone like properties that acts at an anatomically restricted site; most are rapidly degraded. Called also autacoid and autocoid.
luteinizing hormone (LH) a gonadotropin of the anterior pituitary gland, acting with follicle-stimulating hormone to cause ovulation of mature follicles and secretion of estrogen by thecal and granulosa cells of the ovary; it is also concerned with corpus luteum formation. In the male, it stimulates development of the interstitial cells of the testes and their secretion of testosterone. Called also interstitial cell–stimulating hormone.
luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LH-RH) a decapeptide hormone of the hypothalamus, which stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland; it can be used in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal dysfunction. Called also follicle-stimulating hormone–releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) a substance from the anterior pituitary gland of certain other animals but not humans; it influences the formation or deposition of melanin in the body and pigmentation of the skin.
neurohypophyseal h's those stored and released by the neurohypophysis, i.e., oxytocin and vasopressin.
parathyroid hormone (PTH) a polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that influences calcium and phosphorus metabolism and bone formation.
placental h's hormones secreted by the placenta, including chorionic gonadotropin, and other substances having estrogenic, progestational, or adrenocorticoid activity.
progestational hormone
2. progestational agent.
prolactin-inhibiting hormone a hormone released by the hypothalamus that inhibits the secretion of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland.
prolactin-releasing hormone any of various hormones elaborated by the hypothalamus that stimulate the release of prolactin by the anterior pituitary gland. Most such activity is exerted by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, although in humans thyrotropin-releasing hormone can also have this action.
sex h's see sex hormones.
somatotrophic hormone (somatotropic hormone) growth hormone.
somatotropin release–inhibiting hormone somatostatin.
somatotropin-releasing hormone (SRH) growth hormone–releasing hormone.
steroid h's hormones that are biologically active steroids; they are secreted by the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, and placenta and include the progestational agents, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. They act by binding to specific receptors to form complexes, which then enhance or inhibit the expression of specific genes.
thyroid h's see thyroid hormones.
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) thyrotropin.
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) a tripeptide hormone of the hypothalamus, which stimulates release of thyrotropin from the pituitary gland. In humans, it also acts as a prolactinreleasing factor. It is used in the diagnosis of mild hyperthyroidism and Graves disease, and in differentiating between primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism.

hor·mone

(hōr'mōn),
A chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where they exert functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity, and sometimes the structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them. Various hormones are formed by ductless glands, but molecules such as secretin, cholecystokinin/somatostatin, formed in the gastrointestinal tract, by definition are also hormones. The definition of hormone has been recently extended to chemical substances formed by cells and acting on neighboring cells (that is, paracrine function) or the same cells that produce them (that is, autocrine function). For hormones not listed below, see specific names.
[G. hormōn, pres. part. of hormaō, to rouse or set in motion]

hormone

/hor·mone/ (hor´mōn) a chemical substance produced in the body which has a specific regulatory effect on the activity of certain cells or a certain organ or organs.hormo´nal
adrenocortical hormone 
1. any of the corticosteroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex, the major ones being the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, and including some androgens, progesterone, and perhaps estrogens.
adrenocorticotropic hormone  (ACTH) corticotropin.
adrenomedullary hormones  substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
androgenic hormone  androgen.
anterior pituitary hormones  those produced in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary), including corticotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyrotropin.
antidiuretic hormone  vasopressin.
cortical hormone  adrenocortical h.
corticotropin-releasing hormone  (CRH) a neuropeptide elaborated mainly by the median eminence of the hypothalamus, but also by the pancreas and brain, that stimulates the secretion of corticotropin.
ectopic hormone  one released from a neoplasm or cells outside the usual source of the hormone.
eutopic hormone  one released from its usual site or from a neoplasm of that tissue.
fibroblast growth hormone  a peptide hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis that is a potent mitogen of vascular endothelial cells and a regulator of tissue vascularization.
follicle-stimulating hormone  (FSH) one of the gonadotropic hormones of the adenohypophysis; it stimulates ovarian follicle growth and maturation, estrogen secretion, and endometrial changes characteristic of the first portion of the menstrual cycle in females, and stimulates spermatogenesis in males.
follicle-stimulating hormone–releasing hormone  (FSH-RH) luteinizing hormone
gonadotropic hormone  gonadotropin.
gonadotropin-releasing hormone  (Gn-RH)
2. any hypothalamic factor that stimulates release of both follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
growth hormone  (GH) any of several related hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis that directly influence protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism and control the rate of skeletal and visceral growth; used pharmaceutically as somatrem and somatropin.
growth hormone–releasing hormone  (GH-RH) one elaborated by the hypothalamus, stimulating release of growth hormone from the adenohypophysis.
inhibiting hormones  hormones elaborated by one body structure that inhibit release of hormones from another structure; applied to substances of established clinical identity, while those whose chemical structure is still unknown are called inhibiting factors.
interstitial cell–stimulating hormone  luteinizing h.
lactation hormone , lactogenic hormone prolactin.
local hormone  a substance with hormonelike properties that acts at an anatomically restricted site.
luteinizing hormone  (LH) a gonadotropin of the adenohypophysis, acting with follicle-stimulating hormone in females to promote ovulation as well as secretion of androgens and progesterone. It instigates and maintains the secretory portion of the menstrual cycle and is concerned with corpus luteum formation. In males, it stimulates the development and functional activity of testicular Leydig cells.
luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone  (LH-RH) a glycoprotein gonadotropic hormone of the adenohypophysis that acts with follicle-stimulating hormone to promote ovulation and promotes secretion of androgen and progesterone. A preparation of the salts is used in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal dysfunction and in the treatment of some forms of infertility and hypogonadism.
melanocyte-stimulating hormone , melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) one of several peptides secreted by the anterior pituitary in humans and in the rhomboid fossa in lower vertebrates, influencing melanin formation and deposition in the body and causing color changes in the skin of amphibians, fishes, and reptiles.
neurohypophysial hormones  posterior pituitary h's.
ovarian hormones  those secreted by the ovary, such as estrogens and progestational agents.
parathyroid hormone  a polypeptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands, which influences calcium and phosphorus metabolism and bone formation.
placental hormones  those produced by the placenta during pregnancy, including chorionic gonadotropin and other substances having estrogenic, progestational, or adrenocorticoid activity.
plant hormone  phytohormone.
posterior pituitary hormones  those released from the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), including oxytocin and vasopressin.
progestational hormone 
2. see under agent.
releasing hormones  hormones elaborated in one structure that cause the release of hormones from another structure; applied to substances of established chemical identity, while those whose chemical structure is unknown are called releasing factors.
sex hormones  the estrogens and androgens considered together.
somatotrophic hormone , somatotropic hormone growth h.
somatotropin-releasing hormone  (SRH) growth hormone
steroid hormones  those that are biologically active steroids; they are secreted by the adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, and placenta and include the progestogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens.
thyroid hormones  thyroxine, calcitonin, and triiodothyronine; in the singular, thyroxine and/or triiodothyronine.
thyroid-stimulating hormone  (TSH), thyrotropic hormone thyrotropin.
thyrotropin-releasing hormone  (TRH) a tripeptide hormone of the hypothalamus, which stimulates release of thyrotropin from the adenohypophysis and also acts as a prolactin-releasing factor. It is used in diagnosis of mild hyperthyroidism and Graves' disease, and in differentiating among primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. A synthetic preparation is called protirelin.

hormone

(hôr′mōn′)
n.
1.
a. A substance, usually a peptide or steroid, produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect physiological activity, such as growth or metabolism.
b. A synthetic compound that acts like a hormone in the body.
2. Any of various similar substances found in plants and insects that regulate development.

hor·mon′al (-mō′nəl), hor·mon′ic (-mŏn′ĭk) adj.
hor·mon′al·ly adv.

hormone

[hôr′mōn]
Etymology: Gk, hormaein, to set in motion
a complex chemical substance produced in one part or organ of the body that initiates or regulates the activity of an organ or a group of cells in another part. Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands are carried through the bloodstream to the target organ. Secretion of these hormones is regulated by other hormones, by neurotransmitters, and by a negative feedback system in which an excess of target organ activity or hormone signals a decreased need for the stimulating hormone. Other hormones are released by organs for local effect, most commonly in the digestive tract.

hormone

A biomolecule released by a cell or gland that transfers information and instructions from one group of cells to another.

hormone

adjective Referring to a hormone, hormonal noun Endocrinology A chemical messenger produced in an endocrine gland and released into the circulation to effect a change in a specific target organ; hormones regulate the internal environment, effecting homeostatic control, regulate reproductive processes, and affect mood and behavior Types Steroid hormones–cortisol, estrogen, testosterone; nonsteroid hormones–choleckystokinin, epinephrine, dopamine, insulin, norepinephrine, serotonin, vasopressin. See ACTH, Beef growth hormone, Biological thyroid hormone, Candidate hormone, Designer hormone, Ectopic hormone, Emasculated hormone, Fat mobilizing hormone, FSH, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone, HCG, LH, LH-RH, Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Neurohormone, Pheromone, PTH, Somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone, Thyrotropin releasing hormone, TSH. Cf Neurotransmitter.

hor·mone

(hōr'mōn)
A chemical substance formed in a tissue or organ and carried in the blood; stimulates or inhibits the growth or function of one or more other tissues or organs.
[G. hormōn, pres. part. of hormaō, to rouse or set in motion]

hormone

a chemical that is produced in the body of a plant or animal, sometimes in very small quantities, and which, when transported (usually by the blood stream in animals) to the target site in another part of the organism, elicits a particular response. In animals the ductless glands that secrete hormones are called ENDOCRINE ORGANS. Animal hormones that influence other endocrine glands are called trophins (or tropins) - for example, GONADOTROPHINS. PLANT HORMONES are usually called growth substances.

Hormone

Hormones are chemicals that are produced in an organ or gland and then are carried by the blood to another part of the body where they produce a special effect for which they were designed.

hormone (hōrˑ·mōn),

n a chemical transmitter produced by endocrine glands.

hor·mone

(hōr'mōn)
A chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where it produces functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity, and sometimes the structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them.
[G. hormōn, pres. part. of hormaō, to rouse or set in motion]

hormone

a chemical transmitter substance produced by cells of the body and transported by the bloodstream and other means to the cells and organs which carry specific receptors for the hormone and on which it has a specific regulatory effect.
Hormones act as chemical messengers to body organs, stimulating certain life processes and retarding others. Growth, reproduction, control of metabolic processes, sexual attributes and behavior are dependent on hormones.
Hormones are produced by various organs and body tissues, but mainly by the endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid and gonads (testes and ovaries). Each gland apparently manufactures several kinds of hormones; the adrenal glands alone produce more than 25 varieties. The total number of hormones is still unknown, but each has its unique function and structure. After a hormone is discharged by its parent gland into the capillaries or the lymph, it may travel a circuitous path through the bloodstream to exert influence on cells, tissues and organs (target organs) far removed from its site of origin.

adrenomedullary h's
substances secreted by the adrenal medulla, including epinephrine and norepinephrine.
androgenic h's
the masculinizing hormones, androstenedione and testosterone.
hormone assay
modern techniques include the use of competitive protein binding assay and radioimmunoassay.
calciotropic hormone
any hormone which is specifically involved in the homeostatic regulation of serum calcium levels through their effects on bone and other organs, e.g. parathyroid hormone, calcitonin.
corpus luteum hormone
progesterone.
cortical hormone
corticosteroid.
ectopic h's
those secreted by tumors of nonendocrine tissues but having the same physiological effects as their normally produced counterparts. It is not known exactly how the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones from nonendocrine tissues occurs. Most of these tumors are derived from tissues that have a common embryonic origin with endocrine tissues. When the cells undergo neoplastic transformation, they can revert to a more primitive stage of development and begin to synthesize hormones.
enteric hormone
hormone secreted by endocrine cells in the wall of the intestine or stomach or in the pancreas. Includes gastrin, cholecystokinin, secretin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, enteroglucagon, motilin, neurotensin, 5-HT, substance P, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin.
estrogenic h's
substances capable of producing certain biological effects, the most characteristic of which are the changes which occur in mammals at estrus; the naturally occurring estrogenic hormones are β-estradiol, estrone and estriol.
gonadal h's
steroids in birds which affect development of the reproductive tubular system, head decorations, feathers, squawk, behavior.
hormone herbicide
substances sprayed on plants which exert a lethal hormonal effect on the entire plant. See also hormone weedkiller (below).
lactation hormone, lactogenic hormone
prolactin.
luteotropic hormone (LTH)
neurohypophyseal h's
those stored and released by the neurohypophysis, i.e. oxytocin and vasopressin.
peptide h's
peptide molecules which exert their effects only on target cells that carry the hormone-specific receptors.
placental hormone
one secreted by the placenta, including chorionic gonadotropin, relaxin, and other substances having estrogenic, progestational or adrenocorticoid activity. See also placental hormones.
progestational h's
substances, including progesterone, that are concerned mainly with preparing the endometrium for nidation of the fertilized ovum if conception has occurred. See also progestational agent.
hormone receptors
the presence of hormone-specific receptors on cells is the means of determining which cells respond to the circulating hormones. The number of receptors on each cell is one of the ways of regulating the degree of response.
sex h's
see sex hormones.
somatotrophic hormone, somatotropic hormone
growth hormone.
somatotropin release inhibiting hormone
somatostatin.
somatotropin releasing hormone (SRH)
growth hormone releasing hormone.
thymic hormone
thymosin.
hormone weedkiller
includes 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MCP, silvex, dalapon. See also tcdd, hcdd and dioxin.

Patient discussion about Hormone

Q. does the growth hormone have side effects and what are they?

A. Yes, it does, and not a few. They include, among others, pain in the joints, carpal tunnel syndrome, diabetes, pain at the injection site, problems with the thyroid gland, ear problems and many others. You may read more about side effects of growth hormone treatment (called Mecasermin or Somatropin) here: http://www.drugs.com/ppa/mecasermin.html

Q. what is the effect of hormones during pregnancy on a woman's temper?

A. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can indeedn cause mood changes, starting from anxiety or agitations to developing major clinical symptoms of depression. Pregnancy affects each woman differently.

Q. What types of hormonal changes caused by fibromyalgia? Fibromyalgia affects hormones because I feel pain in my back bone. What types of hormonal changes caused by fibromyalgia?

A. Have you ever checked your back pain with a doctor? It may or may not be due to fibromyalgia. Low serotonin levels, low growth hormone levels, and low levels of neuropeptide Y, a component of the feel-good hormone neurotransmitter norepinephrine have been associated with fibromyalgia. Elevated levels of substance P acts as a neurotransmitter and signals the body to experience pain. These pains have also been observed in the spinal cord of fibromyalgia patients.

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