sodium hydrogen carbonate

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

so·di·um bi·car·bon·ate

used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities.


(sod'e-um) [ soda + -ium (1)] Na
An inorganic metallic element, atomic weight (mass) 22.98987, atomic number 11, specific gravity 0.971. Sodium constitutes about 0.15% of body mass. It is the most abundant cation in extracellular fluids, the main contributor to osmotic pressure and hydration, participates in many specialized pumps and receptors on cell membranes, and plays a fundamental part in the electrical activities of the body, e.g., nerve impulse transmission and muscular contraction.
CAS # 7440-23-5

The normal sodium level in serum is 135 to 145 mmol/L. A decreased level of sodium in the serum is called hyponatremia, an increased level, hypernatremia. These conditions per se are not usually excesses or deficiencies of sodium but rather disturbances in the body's regulation of water, i.e., a change in measured sodium concentrations usually results from water retention or water depletion and not from too little or too much sodium in the body. Synonym: natrium See: hypernatremia; hyponatremia

sodium acetate

C2H3NaO2, a chemical compound used to alkalize urine and kidney dialysis solutions. It is also used as a component in many laboratory reagents, e.g., buffers.
CAS # 127-09-3
Synonym: sodium ethanoate

sodium alginate

NaC6H7O6, a purified carbohydrate product extracted from certain species of seaweed. It is used as a food additive and as a pharmaceutical aid.

sodium ascorbate

C6H7NaO6, the sodium salt of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It may be used in a sterile solution when parenteral administration of vitamin C is required.
CAS # 134-03-2

sodium benzoate

C7H5O2Na, a white, odorless powder with sweet taste, used as a food preservative.
CAS # 532-32-1

sodium bicarbonate

NaHCO3, a white odorless powder with a salty taste. It is incompatible with acids, acid salts, ammonium chloride, lime water, ephedrine hydrochloride, and iron chloride. It is used to treat acidosis, e.g., in renal failure. It is used orally as an antacid although its effectiveness for this purpose is questionable. Externally, it is used as a mild alkaline wash. It is also used as a component in many laboratory reagents, e.g., buffers, microbiologic media, and control materials. Synonym: baking soda; sodium hydrogen carbonate
CAS # 144-55-8

sodium carbonate

Na2CO3, a white crystalline alkaline powder. It is used in industry to manufacture glass, ceramics, soaps, paper, and sodium salts. Synonym: soda ashwashing soda
CAS # 497-19-8

carboxymethylcellulose sodium

, carboxymethyl sodium cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
C6H9OCH2COONa, a white powder used as a pharmaceutical aid and a food additive.
CAS # 9085-26-1

sodium chloride

NaCl, a naturally occurring white crystalline compound; common table salt. It is used in preparation of normal saline solution, as an emetic, and to add flavor to foods. It is incompatible with silver nitrate. In aqueous solution, sodium chloride, a neutral salt, is a strong electrolyte, being almost completely ionized. The sodium and chlorine ions are important in maintaining the proper electrolyte balance in body fluids. The kidneys regulate retention or excretion of sodium chloride in urine; aldosterone directly increases the renal reabsorption of sodium ions. Synonym: salt (1); table salt
CAS # 7647-14-5

sodium citrate

C6H5Na3O7, a white granular powder soluble in water. It is used as an anticoagulant for blood collected for laboratory analysis or used for transfusion.
CAS # 18996-35-5

sodium ethanoate

Sodium acetate.

sodium fluoride

NaF, a white, poisonous crystalline powder with a salty taste. Minute amounts of sodium fluoride are added to drinking water for fluoridation, in tooth pastes, and in oral rinses (mouth washes) to prevent dental caries (tooth decay). It is also an effective, inexpensive treatment for osteoporosis. See: fluoridation; sodium fluoride poisoning
CAS # 7681-49-4

sodium hydrogen carbonate

Sodium bicarbonate.

sodium hydroxide

NaOH, a whitish solid, soluble in water and making a clear solution. It is an antacid and a caustic. It is used in laundry detergents and in commercial compounds to clean sink traps, toilets, and in the preparation of soap. It is also used as a component in any laboratory reagent that needs pH balancing. Synonym: caustic soda
CAS # 1310-73-2


It is corrosive. People who handle sodium hydroxide should protect their eyes, mucus membranes, and skin from direct contact.

sodium hypochlorite

NaOCl, an unstable salt used in solution as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and bleaching agent (household bleach).
CAS # 7681-52-9

sodium iodide

NaI, a colorless crystalline solid used as an expectorant.

sodium lactate

C3H5NaO3, a sodium salt of inactive lactic acid. it is used intravenously in one-sixth or one-fourth molar solution to control electrolyte disturbances, esp. acidosis.

sodium lauryl sulfate

C12H25NaO4S, an anionic surface-active agent used as a pharmaceutical acid.

sodium monofluoroacetate

FCH2CO2Na, a toxic pesticide, once banned in the U.S., that inhibits cellular metabolism, esp. in the most metabolically active organs, i.e., the brain and heart. In humans it causes arrhythmias, seizures, coma, and occasionally death. It is used commercially to kill rodents and large animals.
CAS # 62-74-8

sodium monofluorophosphate

Abbreviation: MFP
Na2PO3F, a compound used in toothpastes to prevent dental caries (tooth decay)
CAS # 10163-15-2

sodium morrhuate

, morrhuate sodium
The sodium salt of the fatty acids, found in cod liver oil. It is used as a sclerosing agent for the obliteration of varicose veins, including esophageal varices.

sodium nitrite

NaNO2, a white crystalline powder used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.
CAS # 7632-00-0

sodium nitroprusside

Abbreviation: SNP
C5FeN6Na2O, an antihypertensive and powerful vasodilator used when rapid reduction in blood pressure is required.


Infusion of SNP at the maximum dose rate of 10 µg/kg/min should never last for more than 10 min. For treatment of overdose, See: cyanide poisoning

sodium phosphate, dibasic

Na2HPO4, the secondary phosphate of sodium, used as a cathartic.

sodium phosphate P 32

A radiopharmaceutical made with radioactive phosphorus (32P), used in solution to treat polycythemia vera and certain cancers.

sodium polyanethol sulfonate

Abbreviation: SPS
A polyanionic detergent and antimicrobial agent used in microbiological assays to enhance recovery of bacteria.
CAS # 63589-56-0

sodium polystyrene sulfonate

A cation-exchange resin used to remove potassium from the body.
CAS # 28210-41-5

sodium propionate

C3H5NaO2, a crystalline salt used as an antifungal food additive.
CAS # 137-40-6

sodium salicylate

C7H5NaO3, a white crystalline substance with a disagreeable, even nauseating, taste, used to reduce pain and temperature.
CAS # 54-21-7
See: acetylsalicylic acid

sodium sulfate

Na2SO4, a salt formerly used as a saline cathartic and diuretic, and now used in the manufacture of detergents. The salt grows in the pores of bricks and stones, causing them to crack from the pressure. Synonym: Glauber salt
CAS # 7727-73-3

sodium thiosulfate

Na2O3S2, a white crystalline substance used externally to remove stains of iodine and intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.
CAS # 7772-98-7

sodium hydrogen carbonate

Sodium bicarbonate, baking soda, a drug used in solution to correct metabolic and respiratory acidosis. The drug has also been used to neutralize gastric acidity and to alkalinize the urine. Used as an antacid it produces carbon dioxide. The drug is on the WHO official list.