sodium (sod'e-um) [ soda + -ium (1)] Na
An inorganic metallic element, atomic weight (mass) 22.98987, atomic number 11, specific gravity 0.971. Sodium constitutes about 0.15% of body mass. It is the most abundant cation in extracellular fluids, the main contributor to osmotic pressure and hydration, participates in many specialized pumps and receptors on cell membranes, and plays a fundamental part in the electrical activities of the body, e.g., nerve impulse transmission and muscular contraction.
The normal sodium level in serum is 135 to 145 mmol/L. A decreased level of sodium in the serum is called hyponatremia, an increased level, hypernatremia. These conditions per se are not usually excesses or deficiencies of sodium but rather disturbances in the body's regulation of water, i.e., a change in measured sodium concentrations usually results from water retention or water depletion and not from too little or too much sodium in the body. Synonym: natrium See: hypernatremia; hyponatremia
Synonym: sodium ethanoate
, a chemical compound used to alkalize urine and kidney dialysis solutions. It is also used as a component in many laboratory reagents, e.g., buffers.
NaC6H7O6, a purified carbohydrate product extracted from certain species of seaweed. It is used as a food additive and as a pharmaceutical aid.
, the sodium salt of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). It may be used in a sterile solution when parenteral administration of vitamin C is required.
Na, a white, odorless powder with sweet taste, used as a food preservative.
, a white odorless powder with a salty taste. It is incompatible with acids, acid salts, ammonium chloride, lime water, ephedrine hydrochloride, and iron chloride. It is used to treat acidosis, e.g., in renal failure. It is used orally as an antacid although its effectiveness for this purpose is questionable. Externally, it is used as a mild alkaline wash. It is also used as a component in many laboratory reagents, e.g., buffers, microbiologic media, and control materials. Synonym: baking soda
; sodium hydrogen carbonate
, a white crystalline alkaline powder. It is used in industry to manufacture glass, ceramics, soaps, paper, and sodium salts. Synonym: soda ashwashing soda
carboxymethylcellulose sodium, carboxymethyl sodium cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose sodium, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
COONa, a white powder used as a pharmaceutical aid and a food additive.
NaCl, a naturally occurring white crystalline compound; common table salt. It is used in preparation of normal saline solution, as an emetic, and to add flavor to foods. It is incompatible with silver nitrate. In aqueous solution, sodium chloride, a neutral salt, is a strong electrolyte, being almost completely ionized. The sodium and chlorine ions are important in maintaining the proper electrolyte balance in body fluids. The kidneys regulate retention or excretion of sodium chloride in urine; aldosterone directly increases the renal reabsorption of sodium ions. Synonym: salt
(1); table salt
, a white granular powder soluble in water. It is used as an anticoagulant for blood collected for laboratory analysis or used for transfusion.
sodium ethanoateSodium acetate.
NaF, a white, poisonous crystalline powder with a salty taste. Minute amounts of sodium fluoride are added to drinking water for fluoridation, in tooth pastes, and in oral rinses (mouth washes) to prevent dental caries (tooth decay). It is also an effective, inexpensive treatment for osteoporosis. See: fluoridation
; sodium fluoride poisoning
sodium hydrogen carbonateSodium bicarbonate.
NaOH, a whitish solid, soluble in water and making a clear solution. It is an antacid and a caustic. It is used in laundry detergents and in commercial compounds to clean sink traps, toilets, and in the preparation of soap. It is also used as a component in any laboratory reagent that needs pH balancing. Synonym: caustic soda
It is corrosive. People who handle sodium hydroxide should protect their eyes, mucus membranes, and skin from direct contact.
NaOCl, an unstable salt used in solution as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and bleaching agent (household bleach).
NaI, a colorless crystalline solid used as an expectorant.
C3H5NaO3, a sodium salt of inactive lactic acid. it is used intravenously in one-sixth or one-fourth molar solution to control electrolyte disturbances, esp. acidosis.
sodium lauryl sulfate
C12H25NaO4S, an anionic surface-active agent used as a pharmaceutical acid.
Na, a toxic pesticide, once banned in the U.S., that inhibits cellular metabolism, esp. in the most metabolically active organs, i.e., the brain and heart. In humans it causes arrhythmias, seizures, coma, and occasionally death. It is used commercially to kill rodents and large animals.
sodium monofluorophosphate Abbreviation: MFP
F, a compound used in toothpastes to prevent dental caries (tooth decay)
sodium morrhuate, morrhuate sodium
The sodium salt of the fatty acids, found in cod liver oil. It is used as a sclerosing agent for the obliteration of varicose veins, including esophageal varices.
, a white crystalline powder used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.
sodium nitroprusside Abbreviation: SNP
O, an antihypertensive and powerful vasodilator used when rapid reduction in blood pressure is required.
Infusion of SNP at the maximum dose rate of 10 µg/kg/min should never last for more than 10 min. For treatment of overdose, See: cyanide poisoning
sodium phosphate, dibasic
Na2HPO4, the secondary phosphate of sodium, used as a cathartic.
sodium phosphate P 32
A radiopharmaceutical made with radioactive phosphorus (32P), used in solution to treat polycythemia vera and certain cancers.
sodium polyanethol sulfonate Abbreviation: SPS
A polyanionic detergent and antimicrobial agent used in microbiological assays to enhance recovery of bacteria.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate
A cation-exchange resin used to remove potassium from the body.
, a crystalline salt used as an antifungal food additive.
See: acetylsalicylic acid
, a white crystalline substance with a disagreeable, even nauseating, taste, used to reduce pain and temperature.
, a salt formerly used as a saline cathartic and diuretic, and now used in the manufacture of detergents. The salt grows in the pores of bricks and stones, causing them to crack from the pressure. Synonym: Glauber salt
, a white crystalline substance used externally to remove stains of iodine and intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning.