Welcome light on human motivation in an evolutionary context is provided by Pope's useful identification of four areas in which he considers that much modern sociobiological
writing is significantly defective: (1) reductionism, which explains "higher" human capacities in terms of biological or genetic principles, ultimately genetic fitness and the "selfish gene"; (71) (2) determinism, which considers the human mind "no more than a biological means by which irresistible genetic forces determine external acts," thus concentrating on one causal factor of action and neglecting all others; (72) (3) a disregard for the contribution of culture to human consciousness and choice, such that "the amazing plasticity and variety of the human emotional constitution .
Margaret Gruter, Sociobiological
Perspective, supra note 18, at 185-86
His core idea is a sociobiological
elaboration of ethnic nepotism theory--that ethnic solidarity is kin selection on a large scale.
In chapter four, he writes, "Thus there is a sociobiological
explanation of why the tendency to be moved by the needs of others, especially the needs of kin, has become a characteristic of the species" (PRMC 62).
5) The hybrid aspect of Xenogenesis is analysed with further specificity by Cathy Peppers, who identifies how the trilogy places some of 'our culture's most powerful origin stories'--the biblical story of sexual differentiation, the sociobiological
narrative of the genetic production of identities, and the palaeoanthropological story of evolution from prehistoric ancestors--in dialogic relation with each other and with 'the narrative of the African diaspora and slavery (a/the origin story of African-American identity)'.
We have done our best to make a virtue out of our individual and sociobiological
limits through market economics and democratic politics.
For this reason, most sociobiological
studies are relatively uninformative, if not irrelevant, for understanding human morality.
Autoethnographic self-reflection can therefore be used to re-narrate subjugated sexual scripts and reconstruct emancipated sexual identities, thus enabling individuals to rid themselves of the shackles of confining, essentialist gender ideologies set forth by sociobiological
determinism (Freedman & Combs, 1996; Guidano, 1991; Kleinman, 1988; White & Epston, 1990).
The model of the essentialized child derives from psychological and sociobiological
theories of development that assume that infancy and childhood are different states of being from adulthood.
Given these evidentiary problems, a good deal more caution in making such arguments should have been in order; otherwise, they become merely sociobiological
"just-so stories," of which we have plenty already.
Some even attribute our actions to our genes and offer sociobiological
explanations of our behavior.
Principles of sociobiological
management based on the impact of maturation processes on population behaviour in moose.