Because of its positive qualities like being non-toxic to periapical tissues, and its safe use with children, but considering its negative characteristics such as not having an antibacterial effect and not removing the smear layer
, sterile saline solution is used in combination with other irrigation solutions (24,25).
Towards the end of canal preparation, root canals were irrigated with 1 ml 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by 2 ml 3% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer
The addition of acid etching will remove the smear layer
, enamel and dentin demineralisation exposing the collagen-collagen fibrils that can form a better attachment to the tooth structure.
While irrigation is used during the two previous procedures, the ultimate process of irrigation focuses on thorough tissue removal, including the smear layer
, which then enables the disinfection phase.
Para la busqueda se utilizaron los terminos normalizados del MeSH: EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), citric acid, tetracycline, smear layer
, smear layer
removal, erosion tooth y demineralized dentin matrix.
Moreover, the polymerization stress of the resin cement, the presence of thick smear layer
, in addition to the cementation approach used and the chemical and physical properties of the posts are all contributing factors that can possibly effect the quality of adhesion at the post-cement-adhesive- dentin interfaces.
During root canal preparation the antimicrobial medicament used should also act as a lubricant, remove smear layer
, be watersoluble, be biocompatible with periapical tissues, and have contact with the microorganisms.
Dentin surfaces irradiated by Er:YAG laser were irregular, scaly, or flaky and dentinal tubules were opened without smear layer
, cracked or melted; whereas protrusion of peritubular dentin was revealed due to its less amount of water compared with intertubular dentin.
Inadequate irrigation or instrumentation without irrigation increases the accumulation of debris on the cutting surfaces of instruments as well as debris and smear layer
on root canal walls.
The literature reports that the use of CVD diamond tips in ultrasonic device, when compared to diamond rotary instruments, can produce different morphological characteristics in the dentin surface, more specifically in relation to the thickness of the smear layer
and the surface roughness .
For better adhesion to dentin, some authors have suggested the use of lasers for dentin conditioning, as laser irradiation can provide an apparently microretentive surface, free of a smear layer
and open dentinal tubules.
contains inorganic and organic substances that include fragments of odontoblastic process, micro organisms and necrotic debris.