smad


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SMAD1

A gene on chromosome 4q31.21 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (Mad), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD1 mediates signals from bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which mediate an array of biological activities, including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to the binding of BMP ligands, SMAD is phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase; phosphorylated SMAD1 forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation. SMAD1 is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases—SMURF1 and SMURF2. Its activity is downregulated by ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation.

smad

A family of eight proteins that participate in tumour suppression in conjunction with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-). Smad 1,2,3,5 and 8 are receptor-activated; Smad 4 is a co-mediator; and Smad 6 and 7 are inhibitory. The absence of Smad 3 is a feature of acute T cell lymphoblastic LEUKAEMIA. The term is derived from the proteins' homology to Caenorhabditis elegans Sma and drosophila MAD proteins.
References in periodicals archive ?
YOU'D be mad not to back SMAD PLACE (nap) in the Hennessy Gold Cup (3.
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SMAD PLACE, one of last season's best staying novice chasers, will make his seasonal bow in the Hennessy at Newbury later this month after pleasing Alan King this summer.
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A number of earlier studies performed by Massague's lab had identified that Smads undergo phosphorylations -a kind of chemical change - in a region of the protein about which little is known.
Both the BMP receptor-associated Smads (1, 5, and 8) and the TGF-[beta] receptor-associated Smads (2 and 3) are released into the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation, complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus where they regulate gene expression.
Many other mediators can activate Sma12 and Smad3 independent from TGF-[beta]1 because Smads act as signal integrators and interact with other signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway also play a role in the pathological processes of kidney diseases(Wang et al.
TGF-[beta] proteins are mediated by members of the Smad family of transcription activators, and Smads also affect BMP signaling in some situations.