skinfold


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Related to skinfold: hydrodensitometry, skinfold calipers

skinfold

/skin·fold/ (skin´fōld) the layer of skin and subcutaneous fat raised by pinching the skin and letting the underlying muscle fall back to the bone; used to estimate the percentage of body fat.

fold

(fold)
1. A ridge or a crevice formed when a flexible surface doubles back on itself. Synonym: plica
2. A bend, e.g., one of the bends in a polypeptide that determines its in situ three-dimensional structure.
3. A particular three-dimensional folded shape assumed by a polymer, such as a protein.
4. A thin, doubled sheet extending from a tissue or a cell.

amniotic fold

In the gastrula stage of the embryo, a small bulge of embryonic ectoderm and mesoderm that begins extending into the proamniotic cavity; it eventually gives rise to the amnion and the chorion.

aryepiglottic fold

Each of the two lateral rims of the inlet to the larynx, which are the top edges of the quadrate membranes. These folds are ridges composed of mucosa-covered muscle fibers and fibrocartilage ligaments; they lie behind the thyroid cartilage and extend downward from the sides of the epiglottis anteriorly to the tops of the arytenoid cartilages posteriorly. Near their posterior ends, each fold surrounds a small cuneiform cartilage and then a corniculate cartilage (which sits atop the arytenoid cartilage).

axillary fold

Two ridges of skin-covered muscle along the sides of the chest where the under side of each arm meets the shoulder. The anterior axillary fold is formed by the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle; the posterior axillary fold is formed by the lateral edges of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles.

circular folds

Transverse ruffles that ring the inner wall of the small intestine. The circular folds (plicae) are soft ridges of mucosa that protrude into the intestinal lumen. These folds are largest and closest together in the duodenum distal to the major duodenal papilla, they decrease in height and number through the distal jejunum, and they disappear in the distal ileum. See: circular plica

costocolic fold

A ligament, arising from the peritoneum, that attaches the splenic flexure of the colon to the diaphragm.

Douglasfold

See: Douglas, James

epicanthal fold

Epicanthus.

gastric fold

Any of the mostly longitudinal folds of mucosa found in the empty stomach.
See: ruga

genital fold

A fold of skin in the embryo on each side of the genital tubercle that develops into the labia minora in females.

glossoepiglottic fold

One of three mucous membrane folds between the base of the tongue and the epiglottis.

gluteal fold

The linear crease in the skin that separates the buttocks from the thighs. This fold marks the lower limits of the gluteus maximus muscle.

inframammary fold

The lower border of the breast where it meets the chest wall.
Synonym: submammary fold

infraorbital fold

A line that forms in the skin under the swollen eyelids of patients with atopic dermatitis.
Synonym: atopic pleat; Dennie–Morgan fold

lacrimal fold

A valvelike fold in the lower part of the nasolacrimal duct.

mucobuccal fold

Along the back wall of the mouth, the ridge of oral mucosa that runs from the maxilla (superiorly) or the mandible (inferiorly) to the cheek.

mucolabial fold

The line of flexure where the oral mucosa passes from the maxilla or mandible to the lip.

mucosal fold

A fold of mucosal tissue.

nail fold

A groove in the skin surrounding the margins and proximal edges of the nail.

neural fold

In the early embryo, the raised lateral edges of the neural plate. The neural folds are thickened ridges of epithelium that are pushed up and that meet in the midline as the neural plate curls into a longitudinal tube. These folds, transition zones between the neural tissue in the neural plate and the surrounding surface ectoderm, give rise to the neural crest cells and to ectodermal placodes.

palmate fold of the uterus

Any of the longitudinal ridges along the cervical canal of the uterus.

semilunar fold of conjunctiva

The fold of conjunctiva at the inner angle (inner canthus) of the eye.

sentinel fold

Sentinel pile.

skin fold

, skinfold
A doubling of skin and its underlying adherent subcutaneous tissue. To assess a person's body fat, a skin fold is pinched at a standard site, and the thickness of the doubled skin is measured, using skin fold calipers; a body fat estimate is then calculated using a table or a computer program. There are 6-12 standard locations for measuring skin fold thickness, including over the triceps muscle along the back of the arm and just above the iliac crest of the hip.

submammary fold

Inframammary fold.

transverse fold of rectum

Any of the three permanent folds projecting into the lumen of the rectum. Synonym: Houston valve

urogenital fold

See: urogenital ridge

ventricular fold of the larynx

The upper pair of ridges that project into the midsection of the larynx; these define the upper boundary of the laryngeal vestibule. Each fold is composed of pinkish mucosa covering a thin ligament (the vestibular ligament), which runs from the thyroid cartilage anteriorly to the arytenoid cartilage posteriorly, roughly parallel to the vocal ligament below it. The ventricular vocal folds contribute to certain types of sound production.
Synonym: false vocal cordvestibular fold

vestibular fold

Ventricular fold of the larynx.

vestigial fold

The ligament of the left side of the superior vena cava.

vocal fold

The lower pair of ridges that project into the midsection of the larynx; these define the lower boundary of the laryngeal vestibule, a disk shaped subcavity of the laryngeal cavity. The protruding vocal folds create the narrowest cross-section of the larynx, and they are the edges of the glottis, i.e., rima glottidis, where phonation is produced.

Each vocal fold is composed of whitish, stratified squamous epithelium covering a thin ligament (the vocal ligament), which runs from the thyroid cartilage anteriorly to the arytenoid cartilage posteriorly. The vocal ligament is the medial edge of the vocalis muscle.

During a strong inspiration, the vocal folds are pulled farther apart to widen the opening into the trachea. During swallowing, the vocal folds are pulled together to protect the trachea. During phonation, the vocal folds are pulled together and airflow causes them to vibrate and make a sound; the pitch of this sound can be changed by varying the tension on the vocal ligaments.

Synonym: true vocal cord

skin fold

, skinfold
A doubling of skin and its underlying adherent subcutaneous tissue. To assess a person's body fat, a skin fold is pinched at a standard site, and the thickness of the doubled skin is measured, using skin fold calipers; a body fat estimate is then calculated using a table or a computer program. There are 6-12 standard locations for measuring skin fold thickness, including over the triceps muscle along the back of the arm and just above the iliac crest of the hip.
See also: fold
References in periodicals archive ?
Physical examination: loss of subcutaneous fat; muscle wasting; edema; ascites at fat pads of the eye, triceps skinfold, biceps skinfold, temporal area, clavicular area, shoulder joint, scapula, ribs, interosseous muscle, quadriceps, and calf muscles.
2]; (ii) Density = Cm x log (sum of skinfold thickness); (iii) Percentage of fat = (4.
For skinfold measurements, a Cescorf[R] caliper (Porto Alegre, Brazil) with accuracy of 0.
Model 1 explained 85% of total body fat measured by DXA based on subscapular skinfold (standardized beta coefficient [[[beta].
This study was conducted to compare the body fat estimation by three different skinfold equations namely Jackson and Pollock, Sloan and Durnin and Womersley with BIA.
Skinfold Measurement: During skinfold assessment, the participants stood in a relaxed posture.
2005) Changes in performance, skinfold thicknesses, and fat patterning after three years of intense athletic conditioning in high level runners.
98, excluding waist-to-hip and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratios; see Table S2).
Arrese and Ostariz (2006) found a high positive correlation between the skinfold thickness of the lower extremities and the running speed in several racing disciplines from sprinting to middle and long distance running.
Table 3 shows that Pakistani under-19 cricketers were significantly larger in biceps skinfold than Malaysian under-19 cricketers t = 2.
The findings of this study indicate that: (a) family history of hypertension is associated with a higher percentage of body fat, sum of skinfolds and waist-to-height ratio (visceral fat) in sedentary hypertensive teens; (b) children with a family history of hypertension (CH) have a higher concentration of salivary nitrite at rest relative to children of normotensive (CN); (c) after an incremental exercise test to exhaustion showed a decrease in salivary nitrite levels in the children with a family history of hypertension (CH), the children with a family history of no hypertension (CN) showed an increase in salivary nitrite; and (d) sedentary CH parents have higher body mass index in comparison the CN parents.
Skinfold thickness measured with SC has been used for many years to assess subcutaneous fat thickness and percentage body fat (%BF), and according to Beechy et al.