Other less abundant groups (<1%) such as siphonophores
, medusae, cladocerans, heteropods, appendicularians and echinoderm larvae showed a negative correlation (-0.
And within these communities, siphonophores
rule, consuming so much food that they compete with big, hard-bodied carnivores such as sharks and whales.
These figures generally underestimate the biomass of gelatinous zooplankton, formed by jellyfish, siphonophores
, ctenophores, pteropod mollusks, and thaliaceans or salps.
The expedition also provided specimens that resulted in publications on sea birds, siphonophores
, isopods, and echinoderms, as well as other invertebrate taxa (Table 2).
Horizontal and vertical distributions of siphonophores
in relation to oceanographic conditions in Chilean Patagonian fjords.
Strategies for sperm chemotaxis in the siphonophores
and ascidians: a numerical simulation study.
The latest creatures to enter the red zone are siphonophores
of the genus Erenna.
Observations on pelagic mollusks associated with siphonophores
Velella and Physalia.
This new capability has revealed a remarkable diversity of medusae, ctenophores, and siphonophores
restricted to the midwater environment.
Distribution of siphonophores
, chaetognaths, euphausiids and oceanogra-phic conditions in the fjords and channels of southern Chile.
In modular invertebrates, the level of polymorphism may range from the production of defensive spines or reproductive structures on otherwise monomorphic zooids, to the complete partitioning of feeding, reproductive, and defensive tasks in highly polymorphic colonies such as siphonophores
and some bryozoans (Reed, 1991; Harvell, 1994).
3) All invertebrate zooplankters are considered potential age-0 pollock prey except cnidarians, ctenophores, siphonophores
, and larval shrimps and crabs.