significance


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Related to significance: significance level

significance

[signif′ikəns]
Etymology: L, significare, to signify
1 in research, the statistical probability that a given finding may have occurred by chance alone. The conventional standard for attributing significance is a finding that occurs fewer than 5 times in 100 by chance alone (p |Ld .05).
2 the importance of a study in developing a practice or theory, as in nursing practice.

significance

Clinical medicine A finding to be weighed in establishing a diagnosis, or influencing management of, a clinical state, which may be expressed as a finding of significance  Statistics A measure of deviation of data from a statistical mean, defined by a probability–p value, where a p of 0.05 indicates a 5% possibility or 1 chance in 20 that a dataset differs from a mean and 19 chances that it will not. See Clinical significance, Statistical significance.

significance

(statistics) a description of an observed result that shows sufficient deviation from the result expected to be considered different from the expected result. Significance tests such as the CHI-SQUARED TEST can be carried out to produce a value that is converted into the probability that an observed result will match the result expected from a theory. In biology there is a convention that, if there is more than a 5% chance (P < 5%) that the observed result is the same as the expected, it is possible to conclude that any deviations are ‘not significant’, i.e. have occurred by chance alone. If, however, there is less than a 5% chance (P < 5%) that observed and expected are the same, then it is concluded that the deviations are ‘significant’, i.e. have not occurred by chance alone. For example, tossing a coin 100 times gives 58 heads and 42 tails. The probability that 58:42 is similar to the expected 50:50 is greater than 5%, thus we can conclude that there is no significant deviation between observed and expected results.

significance 

In statistics, an indication that the results of an investigation on a population (e.g. patients) differ from those of another population (e.g. general) by an amount that could not happen by chance alone. This is evaluated by establishing a significance level, that is the probability, called p value, which leads us to reject or accept the null hypothesis Ho (there is no significant difference between two populations and the difference is attributed to chance) and accept or reject the alternative hypothesis H1 that there is a statistically significant difference between two populations. A p value p < 0.05 is often considered significant, but the lower this figure, the stronger the evidence. See randomized controlled trial.

significance

the quality of an assessment about the relationship between two or more values of a variable. Significance is achieved if the relationship is more common than would be achieved by a random selection.
References in periodicals archive ?
Before turning to the analysis, it is worth noting that these legal questions arise against a particular scientific and cultural backdrop: the danger of relying on mere statistical significance in interpreting empirical studies is the subject of scientific and increasingly popular concern, and looking to "practical significance" is a popular remedy.
Clinical significance measures how large a difference in treatment must be in order for a change in practice to occur, or how large a relationship would be needed for significance.
Only a life in pursuit of significance can grant you both.
In terms of the information that an applicant for a proposal will need to provide, this must be proportionate to the significance of the asset and the potential impact of the proposal.
Statistical significance is not the same thing as scientific finding.
The authors next consider whether the fetish of tests of significance is basically harmless--something that is just a ritual that perhaps makes quantitative research appear more scientific than is warranted.
Gerald Dawe, the councillor whose ward covers the site of the Ribbon, said he was unaware of the significance of the find until July, when it was featured on BBC Radio 4's Today programme.
65) notes, the process of determining an item's significance and the impact of this process have received scant attention from the library profession.
The significance of Christ's presence during those nine months highlights the significance of the lives of all unborn children.
Because of the amount of "thick description" and the even-handed tone throughout, it is perhaps easy to miss the significance of Hunter's argument.
Greene 2003; Kennedy 2003) and significance level adjustment (e.
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