short bowel syndrome


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short bowel syndrome

A complication of major small intestine resections (e.g., for ischaemia or inflammation), resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition. In children, necrotising enterocolitis is main cause of short bowel syndrome.

Clinical findings
Excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anaemia, diarrhoea, electrolyte imbalances, and increased oxalates (derived from bile salt detergents) that pass into the circulation, which may crystallise in renal tubules causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia and steatorrhoea. Up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated. If the patient survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, increased absorptive cells and increased small intestinal calibre; after stabilisation and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated as soon as possible to stimulate adaptation.

Indications for massive small intestinal resection
• Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhoea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves.
• Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus or Crohn’s disease.
 
Management
Essential amino acids, low-protein diet, middle-chain triglycerides, vitamins, minerals.

short bowel syndrome

Small intestinal insufficiency Surgery A complication of major small intestine resections–eg, for ischemia or inflammation, resulting in complex nutritional imbalances and/or malnutrition; massive small intestinal resection may be required in
1. Multiple congenital atresias or stenoses of the neonatal intestine; if loss is significant, diarrhea and malabsorption appear shortly after birth; barium studies reveal a malrotated colon and markedly shortened small bowel; if infant survives first few months, intestinal function improves;.
2. Massive resection of gangrenous small intestine due to mesenteric arterial occlusion, traumatic interruption, volvulus, or Crohn's disease; in children, necrotizing enterocolitis is main cause of SBS; excess small intestinal resection results in inadequate absorption of nutrients, minerals and vitamins, causing hypovitaminosis, malnutrition, hypochromic and megaloblastic anemia, diarrhea, electrolyte imbalances, ↑ oxalates–derived from bile salt detergents that pass into the circulation, which may crystallize in renal tubules, causing renal failure, lactic acidosis, osteopenia, steatorrhea; up to 70% of the absorptive surface may be lost and tolerated; if the Pt survives surgery, residual tissue undergoes adaptive hyperplasia of absorptive villi, ↑ absorptive cells and ↑ in small intestinal caliber; after stabilization and temporary parenteral nutritional support, oral feeding must be initiated ASAP to stimulate adaption Treatment High 'quality'–ie, essential amino acids, low protein diet, middle chain TGs, vitamins, minerals. See 'Second look' operation.

short bowel syndrome

A disorder caused by the necessary surgical removal of a segment of intestine. It features weight loss, diarrhoea, fatty stools (steatorrhoea), and deficiencies of sodium, potassium and trace elements (hyponatremia, and hypokalemia). Affected people must eat several small meals a day, of readily-absorbed, finely chopped or ground foods supplemented by vitamins and minerals.

Short bowel syndrome

A condition in which the bowel is not as long as normal, either because of surgery or because of a congenital defect. Because the bowel has less surface area to absorb nutrients, it can result in malabsorption syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
These include Short Bowel Syndrome, a potentially fatal gastrointestinal disorder in which patients may have to rely on parenteral nutrition for their survival; Hypoparathyroidism, a complex endocrine disorder in which the parathyroid glands are either absent or damaged, and the body produces insufficient or no parathyroid hormone; and Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia, an ultra-rare, genetic disorder of calcium homeostasis caused by mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene.
Management of the short bowel syndrome after extensive small bowel resection.
19, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- Naia Limited, an international drug development company with Subsidiaries developing innovative, clinical-stage compounds for short bowel syndrome (SBS), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and Type 2 diabetes, today announced it has raised $5.
Funds from the round will be used to advance two multinational clinical studies to support registration of NTRA-2112 for treating pre-term infants and NTRA-9620 for treating Short Bowel Syndrome in the EU and the United States.
jointly announced today that the European Commission (EC) has granted European market authorization for the medicinal product teduglutide (trade name in Europe: RevestiveA) as a once-daily treatment for adult patients with short bowel syndrome.
Although the small intestine remains a challenging organ to transplant, transplantation is now an option for patients with intestinal failure (IF) due to short bowel syndrome (from multiple surgeries for inflammatory bowel disease), IF-associated liver disease, tumors, complications from bariatric surgery, and newborns with intestinal problems.
One in five patients with NEC had short bowel syndrome.
QI AM a 62-year-old male with severe short bowel syndrome.
The FDA has agreed to Naia's proposed plans for advancing the clinical development of NB1001, its long-acting GLP-1 (XTEN(TM)-GLP-1) receptor agonist, including a Phase 1 dose de-escalating clinical trial in patients with Short Bowel Syndrome.
has been granted an Orphan Drug Designation in the European Union for treatment of Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS).
This hands-on, practical reference offers clinicians expert nutritional knowledge as well as methods for combating such situations as short bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and obesity.
If a patient loses response to infliximab, first do a reassessment to confirm that the patient really has inflammatory symptoms and not some other potential cause of symptoms, such as short bowel syndrome, that requires a different medication or surgery.