sexual development


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development

 [de-vel´up-ment]
1. growth and differentiation.
cognitive development the development of intelligence, conscious thought, and problem-solving ability that begins in infancy.
community health development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating members of a community to identify the community's health concerns, mobilize resources, and implement solutions.
critical path development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as constructing and using a timed sequence of patient care activities to enhance desired patient outcomes in a cost-efficient manner. See also critical path.
program development in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as planning, implementing, and evaluating a coordinated set of activities designed to enhance wellness or to prevent, reduce, or eliminate one or more health problems of a group or community.
psychosexual development
1. generally, the development of the psychological aspects of sexuality from birth to maturity.
2. In psychoanalytic theory, the development of object relations has five stages: the oral stage from birth to 2 years, the anal stage from 2 to 4 years, the phallic stage from 4 to 6 years, the latency stage from 6 years until puberty, and the genital stage from puberty onward; see also sexual development.
psychosocial development the development of the personality, including the acquisition of social attitudes and skills, from infancy through maturity.
risk for delayed development a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as being at risk for delay of 25 per cent or more in one or more of the areas of social or self-regulatory behavior, or in cognitive, language, gross motor, or fine motor skills.
sexual development see sexual development.
staff development
1. an educational program for health care providers conducted by a hospital or other institution; it includes orientation, in-service training, and continuing education.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as developing, maintaining, and monitoring competence of staff.

sexual

 [seks´shoo-al]
1. pertaining to, characterized by, involving, or endowed with sex, sexuality, the sexes, or the sex organs and their functions.
2. characterized by the property of maleness or femaleness.
3. pertaining to reproduction involving both male and female gametes.
4. implying or symbolizing erotic desires or activity.
sexual arousal disorders sexual dysfunction characterized by alterations in sexual arousal; see female sexual arousal disorder and male erectile disorder.
sexual aversion disorder feelings of repugnance for and active avoidance of genital contact with a partner, causing substantial distress or interpersonal difficulty.
sexual desire disorders sexual dysfunctions characterized by alteration in sexual desire; see hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder.
sexual development the biologic and psychosocial changes that lead to sexual maturity. (Biologic changes in humans are discussed under reproductive organs.) The basis for current study of the child's normal psychosexual development is a series of essays on sexuality published by Sigmund Freud in 1905. Although Freud failed to recognize differences in the sexual development of males and females and some parts of this theory have been questioned, his essays on sexuality, in which he describes three phases or stages of human sexual development (oral, anal, phallic), are considered classics in the fields of psychology and psychiatry.



The oral stage of psychosexual development is the infantile period lasting from birth to 12 months, or even to 24 months of age, in which sensual pleasure is derived and sexual tensions are released through oral activities. It is followed by the anal stage at about the age of 18 months to 3 years, which is characterized by the libidinous experience of anal function. In this stage, the boy begins to identify with his father, brothers, and male peers and, after learning to stand and walk, can further fixate the image of his penis and control its urinary function; and the girl becomes aware of the differences between the sexes but is still unaware of her vagina. The female develops penis envy during the anal stage, which may be manifested through feelings of shame, inferiority, jealousy, and perhaps rage. The anal stage is followed by the phallic stage, which usually is seen in boys between the ages of 3 and 4½ years and in girls a short time later. During this stage, sexual interest, curiosity, and pleasurable experiences center about the penis in boys, and in girls, to a lesser extent, the clitoris. Boys may develop castration anxiety during the phallic stage.

The latency period in sexual development extends from about 6 years to 9 or 10 years of age. Children in this period form close relationships with those of the same sex. Masturbation is not uncommon, and is considered by some authorities to be useful in reinforcing the child's awareness of sexuality, to discharge sexual and aggressive impulses, and to contribute to continued sexual development.

Adolescence is a time of rapid change in sexual development; puberty brings on the appearance of secondary sex characters. During puberty the genital stage, the final stage in psychosexual development, occurs, during which the person can achieve sexual gratification from genital-to-genital contact and is capable of a mature relationship with a person of the opposite sex. In midadolescence both sexes become more interested in members of the opposite sex and seek heterosexual experiences.
sexual disorders
1. any disorders involving sexual functioning, desire, or performance.
2. more specifically, any such disorders that are caused at least in part by psychological factors. Those characterized by decrease or other disturbance of sexual desire are called sexual dysfunctions, and those characterized by unusual or bizarre sexual fantasies or acts are called paraphilias. Called also psychosexual disorders.
sexual dysfunction
1. any of a group of sexual disorders characterized by disturbance of sexual desire or of psychophysiological changes that usually characterize sexual response. Included are sexual desire disorders, sexual arousal disorders, orgasmic disorders, and sexual pain disorders.
2. a nursing diagnosis accepted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as the experiencing by an individual of a change in sexual function that he or she feels is unsatisfying, unrewarding, or otherwise inadequate. The perception of the patient/client is a critical factor in determining whether the diagnosis is within the domain of nursing and amenable to nursing intervention in the form of teaching and counseling. Defining characteristics include verbalization of the problem, whether actual or perceived, limitation imposed by disease or therapy, and reported inability to achieve desired satisfaction. See also ineffective sexuality patterns.



The concept of human sexuality is broad and complex. All persons are sexual beings from birth to death. Acute and chronic disorders, disabling neurologic injury and disease, and aging may necessitate adaptations in the ways in which sexuality is expressed, but the individual with a sexual dysfunction, no matter how severe, does not cease to be a sexual being.

Because of the complexity of human sexuality, specific etiologies of sexual dysfunction can be classified as pathophysiological, psychological, environmental, or maturational. Altered body function related to endocrine disease, surgery, trauma, radiation, or cancer can be a primary or secondary cause of dysfunction. Lack of information, misinformation, developmental disability, absence of an effective role model, and physical and sexual abuse can alter sexual function, as can lack of privacy, fear or guilt, an incompatible or abusive partner, and excessive stress.
sexual health a concept defined in 1975 by the World Health Organization as “the integration of the somatic, emotional, intellectual, and social aspects of sexual being, in ways that are positively enriching and enhance personality, communication, and love.”
sexual pain disorders sexual dysfunctions characterized by pain associated with intercourse; it includes dyspareunia and vaginismus not due to a general medical condition.

sexual development

See Tanner staging.
References in periodicals archive ?
These data revealed that young men are poorly served with information about healthy sexual development.
The current study aims to analyse the various disorders of sexual development, their clinical presentation, histopathological findings and their treatment modalities.
In addition, issues that arise for adolescents during their sexual development may be exacerbated by social isolation, complicated caregiver roles, and misconceptions about people with disabilities (Jemta et al.
True (A) or false (B)--click on the correct answer: In a sporting environment children with disorders of sexual development usually stand out earlier, particularly if they were raised as girls and develop masculine features.
Clinton and his group considered hormones and sexual development in the study of three peculiar chickens donated to the institute.
A variety of such models have been advanced and are relevant to investigations of sexual development (e.
All the above studies operationalized secondary sexual development by 'researcher observations' (Talpade, 2004) or by parental report of presence or absence of their child's development (Talpade, 2006a, 2006b, 2008).
Chief executive Emma-Jane Cross said: "We don't want to stifle young people's sexual development but it is important that parents and schools understand the rise of sexting so together we can act to stop sexual bullying.
This is a helpful reference to clarify the difference between what could be normal age-appropriate sexual development and behaviour, and whether there is a suggestion that a child may have been abused.
Three speakers will explore how lifestyle choices, hormones in the body and chemicals in the environment can affect obesity, stress and sexual development.
A special type of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is McCune-Albright syndrome, which is associated with precocious sexual development and cafe au lait spots on the skin.
He has gone over colleagues' heads to oppose the committee's opinion that the hormones are safe, claiming they can provoke abnormal sexual development in children.