Masculinity, femininity, and the Bern Sex Role
Inventory in Turkey.
socialization in picture books for pre-school children.
1) To ascertain whether sex role
egalitarianism of the husband and the wife effects the relative influence of the husband and the wife in the decision-making process for purchases.
For instance in a research cited in Archer (1978) it was found that men in a New Guinea tribe where led by women, looked after children and where more responsive to children than women and women being the more dominant partner, a situation which is a reverse of sex roles
found in western societies (Archer 1978).
As a sociologist, I never saw sex roles
as biological, but as socially constructed roles--like other "ascribed" and "achieved" statuses and roles in society which were conceptualized differently by different cultures and by diverse sociological schools of thought at the time.
Consequently, sex role
typing and its accompanying stereotypes/beliefs constitute different expectations about appropriate behaviors for the two sexes, and thus we believe is an important factor to consider when investigating traditional and nontraditional career choices.
The notions of feminine and masculine orientations as personality constructs are developed, for example, by Bem (1981) in the refinement of the Bem Sex Role
Male sex role
conflicts, sexism, and masculinity: Psychological implications for men, women, and the counseling psychologist.
These authors examined the relationship between one's identification with the role of athlete and gender role orientation by asking participants Io complete the Athletic Identification Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) and the Bem Sex Role
Inventory (Bern, 1974).
In a subsequent study, Powell and Butterfield (1981) hypothesized that individuals' sex-role identities rather than sex would predict their managerial aspirations; Comer and Jolson (1985) investigated whether a student's gender or self-perceived sex role
was a significant predictor of the student's career choice; and Quackenbush (1987) investigated whether masculinity and femininity are actually social competencies that contribute to an individual's personal and social effectiveness.
Two Tests of Gender Differences and Their Relationship to Sex Roles
Some of the cultural information not accessible to the mental health counselor may be linked to the sex role
attributions of American-Indian women.