set-point hypothesis

set-point hypothesis

A deterministic theory that explains the interplay of appetite and other factors (e.g., fats and carbohydrates) in weight control. According to the set-point hypothesis, the brain is constantly adjusting metabolism and manipulating an individual’s behaviour to maintain a target weight; although the set point changes with age, it does so according to a fixed genetic program: while diet and exercise can shift the set point, the target itself is immutable.

The set-point hypothesis has been criticised as it does not explain the marked increase in obesity in the general population, nor the differences in weight in the geographically separated Pima Indians; if the SPH is valid, and weight is indeed centrally controlled, the intake of fat should have little impact on weight.
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Schmidt and his colleagues (Machiels-Bongaerts, Schmidt & Boshuizen, 1990; Schmidt, 1982, 1983) have proposed a cognitive set-point hypothesis to explain this phenomenon.
However, the cognitive set-point hypothesis also predicts that, when total study time is unlimited both experimental and control subjects will reach the set-point for all items, and therefore show similar recall performance.
However, preliminary studies (Machiels-Bongaerts & Boshuizen, 1989) suggest that the set-point hypothesis may not only explain study time and recall patterns of items previously mobilized but also seems to apply to non-mobilized items in the same category.
In summary, according to the set-point hypothesis, mobilization of relevant knowledge prior to a processing event has two effects, both resulting in a processing advantage.
In order to test these predictions of the cognitive set-point hypothesis, three experiments were conducted.
The cognitive set-point hypothesis predicts that processing information relevant to prior knowledge mobilized requires less time than processing non-mobilized information.
According to the cognitive set-point hypothesis, this processing pattern would result in two recall phenomena.
According to the cognitive set-point hypothesis, under this fixed study-time condition, the processing advantage acquired through mobilization would lead to superior recall of the mobilized category by the experimental groups and, hence, better overall recall.
These results confirm the predictions of the set-point hypothesis.
These data confirm the prediction of the cognitive set-point hypothesis that mobilizing prior knowledge facilitates the processing of both mobilized and non-mobilized items of the category activated.
The cognitive set-point hypothesis predicts that the presidents group and the States group would allot less processing time to mobilized items since these items had already been processed to a certain degree during mobilization.
Both the study time patterns and the recall results found in Expt 2 provide support for the cognitive set-point hypothesis.