eriantha suggesting that, whilst both species are serotinous, the degree of serotiny varies substantially between the two species occurring in very similar vegetation types.
Groom and Lamont (1997) proposed that strong serotiny in Hakea species was linked with significantly thicker and denser follicles than fruits of weakly serotinous species.
Observations by Neser (1968) found that moth larvae are more likely to die from predation, starvation and dehydration whilst attacking a strongly serotinous Hakea species from the outside.
The number of prefire serotinous trees within 50 m of the sampling point was the most important variable explaining lodgepole pine seedling density (Table 4), with a positive correlation observed (Table 5).
0249 negative Number of serotinous individuals surrounding the sampling point (df = 1) 69.
As with total seedling density, most variation in first-year seedling density was explained by the number of prefire serotinous individuals, but change through time was significant (Table 4).
To test this question, we conducted an experiment using serotinous trees from the current beetle outbreak in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, comparing germination in serotinous cone seeds between living trees and trees killed in the current outbreak, as well as between cones located on younger vs.
We then heated the cones for 24 h in an oven at 60 C, an average temperature to completely open serotinous cones without inhibiting their germination response through overheating (Clements, 1910; Perry and Lotan, 1977; Knapp and Anderson, 1980; Johnson and Gutsell, 1993).
Both desiccation and heat are necessary for seed dispersal from serotinous cones of some members of the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae (Teich, 1970; Vogl et al.
Wet-dry cycles were essential for seed release from 4 species of Banksia, whether serotinous or not.
Partly opened serotinous
cones of Table Mountain pine also provide food for nuthatches, chickadees, and woodpeckers, which extract seeds from gaps between the cone scales.
This assumption is supported by the fact that most invasive pines in fynbos are serotinous
(Richardson et al.