2011) to examine the effect of attentional focus of instructions on a simple serial skill (five simple movements in a routine) They concluded that both attentional focus instructions neither benefited nor degraded learning in form-based task.
It is predicted that the modified instructions focusing on movement outcome can enhance the learning of a serial skill as it allows learners to exploit the self-organisation processes present in such a learning context, as previously supported in studies examining the acquisition of discrete and continuous skills.
The cameras were placed 3m at the sagittal and 6m at the frontal planes from where the participant stood before the performance of the serial skill task, to capture the movements that occurred in these two planes.
Performance scores of each serial skill is the sum of the scores from the three main categories--Accuracy, Mastery and Presentation.
The purpose of the study was to determine the difference in effectiveness between traditionally used instruction of attention in taekwondo and the movement outcome of instructions in learning a serial skill task among novice adult learners.
Researchers may want to consider longer period of practice time in learning a serial skill task.
Despite the novelty of the situation and/or the greater task difficulty encountered in retention tests such as the absence of external-focus stimuli--belts, chairs, barriers etc, treatment group's participants outperformed control group participants in all the three serial skill tasks (see Figures 3a and 3b).
In conclusion, the results of this study reveal some potentially enlightening differences between movement form and movement outcome instructions for learning a serial skill task.
Sliding front kick Session 1 Discrete skill 1 and 2 Serial skill 1 Session 2 Revision Serial skill 2 Discrete skill 3 and 4 Session 3 Revision Serial skill 3 Discrete skill 5 and 6 Session 4 Revision Serial skill 4 Discrete skill 7 and 8 Session 5 Revision on all discrete skills Serial skill 5 Session 6 Discrete skill 1, 2, 3 and 4 Serial skill 1, 2 and 3 Session 7 Discrete skill 5,6, 7 and 8 Serial skill 4 and 5 Session 8 Serial skill 1 to 5 Session 9 Discrete skill 1-7 Session 10 Serial skill 1-5 Session 11 Whole routine Session 12 Whole routine Table 3.
One of the key research gaps for current research investigating attention focus is an over-emphasis on examining discrete and continuous skills rather than serial skills.
Nevertheless, it is important to investigate whether the quantity of instructions in relation to varied attentional focus have an important impact on learning serial skills in future studies.
Descriptive data (Mean [+ or -] SE) of overall components for all the serial skills performance.