A particular strength of this study was its focus on effects on the seminiferous cords
, which were similar in rat and human tissue.
Testicular sections from control mice revealed seminiferous cords
comprised of Sertoli (capitalize "S" in Sertoli throughout) cells that were mainly located at the periphery of the cords.
2000) and aggregation of germ cells in the seminiferous cords (Barlow and Foster 2003; Kleymenova et al.
5 DBP-exposed animals, clusters were fewer and, on average, 15% of seminiferous cords contained clusters > 3,000 AU, a size rare in controls (Figure 1A).
However in the few seminiferous cords that exhibited germ cell aggregation after exposure to DBP, there was a lack of Sertoli cell cytoplasmic "fingers" extending around the germ cells, again comparable to the findings in rats.
Furthermore, immunostaining for the Sertoli cell filament markers N-cadherin and vimentin showed a collapse of the filament structures, with loss of Sertoli cell cytoplasmic "fingers" extending toward the center of the seminiferous cords in DBP-exposed rats at all ages.
The active phthalates also alter fetal testis seminiferous cords, an effect manifested by the induction of multinucleated germ cells (MNGs) (Boekelheide et al.
MNG formation is a convenient measure of phthalate-induced effects on the seminiferous cords (Boekelheide et al.
The sections were scanned using an Aperio CS ScanScope, and the digitized images were used to measure seminiferous cord area.
KEY WORDS: animal model, fetal testis, human, mouse, multinucleated germ cells, phthalate, rat, seminiferous cords, testicular dysgenesis, xenotransplant.
However, both species exhibited enlarged seminiferous cords and MNG formation.
Treatment-blinded slides were quantified for total seminiferous cord area (counting all seminiferous cords with at least one identifiable germ cell) using ImageScope software (Aperio), and then quantified for the total number of mononuclear and multinuclear germ cells within defined seminiferous cords using an Olympus BH-2 microscope (Olympus, Center Valley, PA).