Like the definitions of hostile act and hostile intent, this new definition of imminence draws no distinction in its application between the different levels of self-defense
outlined above, effecting a broadening of the unitary standard across all levels.
Other critics argue that advocating self-defense
implies that women bear responsibility for stopping assault.
The violent confrontations between the drug cartels and the self-defense
groups prompted the federal government in May of last year to dispatch the Army and federal police to some of the areas with the highest level of conflict (SourceMex, May 29 2013).
While the practical significance of this question is quite self-evident, of no lesser importance are its theoretical foundations: as I will elaborate upon further, the use of lethal force against a potential rapist presents an instructive test case, shedding light on broader conceptual questions relating to the doctrine of self-defense
in general, and concerning the requirement of proportionate force in particular.
The Tokyo government has thus far interpreted the clause as denying Japan the right of collective self-defense
, which refers to a country's right to use military power to defend an ally if it is under attack, even if the country itself is not attacked.
Grant Newsham, the Tokyo-based Marine Corps Pacific liaison officer to the Japanese Ground Self-Defense
Force, added that Japanese forces have put in a lot of hard work to get to this point.
In particular, the source and scope of the right of unit self-defense
has not been carefully examined in academic literature.
The Japanese Defense Ministry is planning to boost the size and capability of its cyber unit under the excuse of self-defense
against hackers, according to the official newspaper Rodong Sinmun.
2011), "State Weakness, Irregular Warfare, and the Right to Self-Defense
Post-9/11," American Journal of International Law 105(2): 255-257 and 272; Hakimi, M.
The new law was the legislature's response to a Florida Supreme Court ruling requiring a defendant to bear the burden of proof at a pretrial hearing on the issue of self-defense
She further said with such training in martial arts and self-defense
girls would be able to tackle harassment in public transport, at workplaces or secluded neighbourhoods.
Part III examines Missouri case law for the quantum of evidence meant by substantial evidence in the context of self-defense