sedative-hypnotic


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sedative-hypnotic

(sĕd′ə-tĭv-hĭp-nŏt′ĭk)
n.
A drug, such as a barbiturate or antianxiety agent, that depresses the activity of the central nervous system and is used to relieve anxiety and induce sleep.

sedative-hypnotic

a drug that reversibly depresses the activity of the central nervous system, used chiefly to induce sleep and to allay anxiety. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and other sedative-hypnotics have diverse chemical and pharmacological properties that share the ability to depress the activity of all excitable tissue, especially the arousal center in the brainstem. Sedative-hypnotics are used in the treatment of insomnia, acute convulsive conditions, and anxiety states and in facilitation of the induction of anesthesia. Although sedative-hypnotics have a soporific effect, they may interfere with rapid eye movement sleep associated with dreaming and, when administered to patients with fever, may act paradoxically and cause excitement rather than relaxation. Sedative-hypnotics may interfere with temperature regulation, depress oxygen consumption in various tissues, and produce nausea and skin rashes. In elderly patients they may cause dizziness, confusion, and ataxia. Drugs in this group have a high potential for abuse that often results in physical and psychological dependence. Treatment of dependence involves gradual reduction of the dosage because abrupt withdrawal frequently causes serious disorders, including convulsions. Acute reactions to an overdose of a sedative-hypnotic may be treated with an emetic, activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and measures to maintain airway patency. BusPIRone, zolpidem and zaleplon are among the newer nonbarbiturate-nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs. See also barbiturate, benzodiazepine derivative.
References in periodicals archive ?
Horizontal nystagmus is the most reliable sign of sedative-hypnotic intoxication because it is easy to observe and impossible to feign.
Fine mapping of a sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal locus on mouse chromosome 11.
The use of Intermezzo with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended.
Condensed from chapters on pharmacotherapy in their volume Psychiatry, Second Edition from 2003, chapters are organized by drug class: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytic drugs, sedative-hypnotic agents, psychostimulants, cognitive enhancers and treatments for Alzheimer's Disease, and drugs for substance abuse disorders.
Aquavan is an investigational drug that is being studied as a sedative-hypnotic agent in patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
Like the label of Ambien and other sedative-hypnotic drugs used to induce and/or maintain sleep, the labels of all generic zolpidem formulations will include information about the potential for severe allergic reactions and complex sleep-related behaviors that have been reported in people using these drugs, according to the FDA.
of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore 14 subjects with a history of sedative-hypnotic abuse received single doses of ramelteon of up to 160 mg (20 times the therapeutic dose).
The psychological and physiological effects of drugs are then explored in individual chapters covering alcohol; tobacco; narcotics; sedative-hypnotic drugs; psychotherapeutic drugs; stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, and caffeine); marijuana; and over-the-counter drugs.
To meet the needs of other major, underserved medical markets while lowering development risks, Manhattan Pharmaceuticals also developing PTH (1-34), a peptide believed to be a regulator of epidermal cell growth, under development for psoriasis and other dermatological conditions and Propofol Lingual Spray, a convenient, proprietary lingual spray formulation of propofol, the world's best-selling general anesthetic, as a sedative-hypnotic for use during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
Intermezzo, like other sedative-hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects.