sedative-hypnotic


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sedative-hypnotic

(sĕd′ə-tĭv-hĭp-nŏt′ĭk)
n.
A drug, such as a barbiturate or antianxiety agent, that depresses the activity of the central nervous system and is used to relieve anxiety and induce sleep.

sedative-hypnotic

a drug that reversibly depresses the activity of the central nervous system, used chiefly to induce sleep and to allay anxiety. Barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and other sedative-hypnotics have diverse chemical and pharmacological properties that share the ability to depress the activity of all excitable tissue, especially the arousal center in the brainstem. Sedative-hypnotics are used in the treatment of insomnia, acute convulsive conditions, and anxiety states and in facilitation of the induction of anesthesia. Although sedative-hypnotics have a soporific effect, they may interfere with rapid eye movement sleep associated with dreaming and, when administered to patients with fever, may act paradoxically and cause excitement rather than relaxation. Sedative-hypnotics may interfere with temperature regulation, depress oxygen consumption in various tissues, and produce nausea and skin rashes. In elderly patients they may cause dizziness, confusion, and ataxia. Drugs in this group have a high potential for abuse that often results in physical and psychological dependence. Treatment of dependence involves gradual reduction of the dosage because abrupt withdrawal frequently causes serious disorders, including convulsions. Acute reactions to an overdose of a sedative-hypnotic may be treated with an emetic, activated charcoal, gastric lavage, and measures to maintain airway patency. BusPIRone, zolpidem and zaleplon are among the newer nonbarbiturate-nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs. See also barbiturate, benzodiazepine derivative.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 3: Population Characteristics and Potentially Inappropriate Sedative-Hypnotic Prescribing for Older Adults in 2010 Weighted Factors Values (SE) Visits Visit % (*) Age Mean = 75.
Animal studies have already shown profound sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic like effects of Linalool [22, 23].
The articles cited above concerning treatment of barbiturate withdrawal all indicate that it should only be done in an inpatient setting since the consequences of improperly managed sedative-hypnotic withdrawal could be lethal, either due to overdose or uncontrolled barbiturate withdrawal.
Based on the sedative-hypnotic effect of differential doses of single extract, preferable combinations of different extract were evaluated.
However, criminals frequently use methaqualone and other sedative-hypnotics to rob passengers on buses and trains, and passengers must be careful in accepting and consuming tea, coffee, and toffees from unknown persons while traveling.
By examining Tennessee Medicaid files, they identified sedative-hypnotic drug use among 16,262 drivers 65 to 84 years old.
Regular use of prescribed sedative-hypnotic drugs was significantly higher by the institutionalized than by the non-institutionalized subjects (Table 1).
Prescribing sedative-hypnotic drugs is not routinely recommended for older patients with a sleep disorder.
Advisors to the Food and Drug Administration voted 20-2 that the risk-benefit profile of sodium oxybate did not support approval of the sedative-hypnotic drug as a treatment for fibromyalgia, citing concerns that included the lack of longterm data and the potential for illicit use of the drug.
Advisers to the Food and Drug Administration voted 20-2 that the risk-benefit profile of sodium oxybate did not support approval of the sedative-hypnotic drug as a treatment for fibromyalgia, citing concerns that included the lack of long-term data and the potential for illicit use of the drug.
The present study provided some data on the effects of the essential oil from fresh leaves on the mouse central nervous system, providing information about motor performance, sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activities.
Condensed from chapters on pharmacotherapy in their volume Psychiatry, Second Edition from 2003, chapters are organized by drug class: antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, anxiolytic drugs, sedative-hypnotic agents, psychostimulants, cognitive enhancers and treatments for Alzheimer's Disease, and drugs for substance abuse disorders.