second messengers


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second messengers,

n intracellular substances that translate chemical or electrical messages from the environment into intracellular responses.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other intracellular receptors are activated by second messengers that are produced by an intracellular signaling cascade.
Objective: Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases that generate intracellular second messengers in signal transduction and membrane trafficking pathways and are important drug targets.
In the past, many researchers centered their studies on the role played by inositols as second messengers in insulin signaling transduction [37].
One study found that the exercise affects neurotransmitters, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipids, growth factors and second messengers.
2007; Vize, 2009), which are classic visual and nonvisual photoreceptors that act via calcium second messengers in many marine invertebrates (Yarfitz and Hurley, 1994; Vize, 2009), this is more likely to be the mechanism responsible for sensing and responding to light in coral.
Material is arranged in sections on biophysical chemistry, metabolism, second messengers, and ultrastructure; membrane potential, transport physiology, pumps, and exchangers; membrane excitability and ion channels; synaptic transmission and sensory transduction; and muscle and other contractile systems.
The Swedish king attended the Second Messengers of Peace Camp at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Thuwal Wednesday evening.
NOX-generated ROS can act as second messengers in tightly controlled signal transduction pathways for many growth and trophic factors.
In particular, it has been recently demonstrated that carnosine is a potent and selective scavenger of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, typical by-products of membrane lipids peroxidation and considered second messengers of the oxidative stress, and inhibits aldehyde-induced protein-protein and DNA-protein cross-linking in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in cardiovascular ischemic damage, in inflammatory diseases.
The anthology represents a considerable update and expansion of the 1999 Lipid Second Messengers.
Binding of the neurotransmitter to the receptor activates G -proteins, which in turn induce the production of second messengers such as cyclic AMP (cAMP) that then activate kinases, ultimately resulting in the opening of ion channels in the cell's membrane.
This binding initiates a series of chemical reactions inside the cell, called the second messengers, according to Fitzgerald.