second impact syndrome


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A rare but catastrophic condition seen in boxing and other ‘head-impact’ sports, which occurs in 2 phases: (1) a concussion or cerebral contusion due to blunt trauma to the head which causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and decreased speech and motor functions; (2) further trauma—i.e., a second blow or impact—however minor, before the parenchymal changes caused by the first concussion have completely resolved, may cause a coma or sudden death due to cerebral oedema. Most common in young athletes, it is often fatal or leaves the victim with severe neurologic residua
Aetiology Unknown. It has been attributed to dysregulation of the intracranial arterioles

second impact syndrome

Sports medicine A catastrophic condition associated with boxing and other 'head-impact' sports, which occurs in 2 phases; a concussion or cerebral contusion 2º to blunt trauma to the head causes headaches, impaired cognition, incoordination, and ↓ speech and motor functions; if further trauma–ie, a 2nd impact occurs before the Sx resolve, a 2nd blow or impact, however minor, may cause coma or sudden death due to cerebral edema. See Boxing, Concussion, Ultimate fighting.
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Ms Anderson added: "I accept the consensus opinion that the features of this death are typical of second impact syndrome which occurs when two concussive-type injuries are sustained in a short space of time.
There is some evidence that children are more susceptible to second impact syndrome than adults because their brains cannot recover as well from a minor knock.
State pathologist Jack Crane believes he died from Second Impact Syndrome - two heavy knocks close to each other which caused swelling in the brain.
But with input from two senior and experienced neurosurgeons, Stephen Cooke and Brian Herron, he concluded Benjamin died from cerebral oedema, subdural haemorrhage and Second Impact Syndrome.
Second Impact Syndrome is rarely mentioned in Northern Ireland and Prof Crane conceded a number of colleagues he consulted in England had not heard of the syndrome which is well researched in the US, in particular among football players.