seborrheic dermatitis


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Related to seborrheic dermatitis: seborrheic keratosis

Seborrheic Dermatitis

 

Definition

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by scaly lesions usually on the scalp, hairline, and face.

Description

Seborrheic dermatitis appears as red, inflamed skin covered by greasy or dry scales that may be white, yellowish, or gray. It can effect the scalp, eyebrows, forehead, face, folds around the nose and ears, the chest, armpits (axilla), and groin. Dandruff and cradle cap are mild forms of seborrheic dermatitis, and appear as fine white scales without inflammation.

Causes and symptoms

The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unclear, though it is has been linked to genetic or environmental factors. Pityrosporum ovale, a species of yeast normally found in hair follicles, has been proposed as one possible causative factor. A high fat diet and alcohol ingestion are thought to play some role. Other possible risk factors include:
  • stress and fatigue
  • weather extremes (e. g. hot, humid weather or cold, dry weather)
  • oily skin
  • infrequent shampoos
  • obesity
  • Parkinson's disease
  • AIDS
  • use of drying lotions that contain alcohol
  • other skin disorders (for example acne, rosacea, or psoriasis)
Mild forms of the disorder may be asymptomatic. Symptoms also disappear and reappear, and vary in intensity over time. When scaling is present, it may be accompanied by itching that can lead to secondary infection.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis is based on assessment of symptoms, accompanied by consideration of medical history.

Treatment

Treatment consists of vigorous shampoos with preparations that assist with softening and removing the scaly accumulations. For mild cases, a nonprescription shampoo with selenium sulfide or zinc pyrithione may be used. For more severe problems, the doctor may prescribe shampoos containing coal tar or scalp creams containing cortisone. The antiseborrheic shampoo should be left on the scalp for approximately five minutes before rinsing out. Hydrocortisone cream may also be ordered for application to the affected areas on the face and body. Application of the hydrocortisone should be discontinued when the condition clears and restarted with recurrence.

Prognosis

This chronic condition may be characterized by long periods of inactivity. Symptoms in the acute phase can be controlled with appropriate treatment.

Key terms

Acne — A chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands that manifests as blackheads, whiteheads, and/or pustules on the face or trunk.
Psoriasis — A skin disorder of chronic, itchy scaling most commonly at sites of repeated minor trauma (e.g. elbows, knees, and skin folds). It affects up to 2% of the population in Western countries—males and females equally.
Rosacea — A chronic inflammation of the face, with associated scattered round nodules and increased reactivity of the facial capillaries to heat. It is most common in females, aged 30-50 years.

Prevention

The condition cannot be prevented. The severity and frequency of flare-ups may be minimized with frequent shampoos, thorough drying of skin folds after bathing, and wearing of loose, ventilating clothing. Foods that appear to worsen the condition should be avoided.

Resources

Books

Monahan, Frances, and Marianne Neighbors. Medical Surgical Nursing: Foundations for Clinical Practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1998.

seborrheic

 [seb″o-re´ik]
1. affected with or of the nature of seborrhea.
2. pertaining to those areas of the body whose sebaceous glands are abundant, as the scalp, face, and axillae.
seborrheic dermatitis an inflammatory condition, usually of the skin of the scalp, with yellowish greasy scaling of the skin and itching. A mild case in the scalp is called dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis can involve other areas such as the face, neck, central part of the trunk, or axilla. The underlying cause is not known; the hair and scalp may be excessively oily, but the connection (if any) between this and the dermatitis is not known. Although there is no specific cure for dandruff, various measures are used to control and relieve it. Most patients can control scalp scaling by frequent use of a shampoo containing zinc pyrithione, selenium sulfide, or tar. The dermatitis responds well to hydrocortisone cream.

seb·or·rhe·ic der·ma·ti·tis

, dermatitis seborrheica
a common scaly macular eruption that occurs primarily on the face, scalp (dandruff), and other areas of increased sebaceous gland secretion, especially during infancy and after puberty; the lesions are covered with a slightly adherent oily scale. Effectiveness of treatment with betaconazole supports an etiologic role for Pityrosporum ovale infection.

seborrheic dermatitis

a common chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by greasy scales and yellowish crusts. Common sites are the scalp, eyelids, eyebrows, face, external surfaces of the ears, axillae, central chest, breasts, groin, and gluteal folds. In some people seborrheic dermatitis is associated with paralysis agitans, diabetes mellitus, malabsorption disorders, epilepsy, or an allergic reaction to gold or arsenic. Treatment includes selenium sulfide shampoos, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical antibiotics, proper therapy for any underlying systemic disorder, and avoidance of sweating and external irritants. Kinds of seborrheic dermatitis include cradle cap, dandruff, and seborrheic blepharitis.
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Seborrheic dermatitis

seborrheic dermatitis

Cradle cap; dandruff Dermatology An idiopathic dermatopathy characterized by greasy or dry white scales, variably accompanied by erythmea Sites Scalp, face, nose, eyebrows, behind ears, external ear, skin over sternum and over skin folds Risk factors Familial, stress, fatigue, temperature extremes, oily skin, infrequent shampoos or skin cleaning, acne, obesity, excess use of lotions with alcohol, AIDS, neurologic conditions–eg, Parkinson's disease, head injury, stroke

seb·or·rhe·ic der·ma·ti·tis

, dermatitis seborrheica (seb'ōr-ē'ik dĕr'mă-tī'tis, seb-ōr-ē'i-kă)
A common scaly macular eruption that occurs primarily on the face, scalp (dandruff), and other areas of increased sebaceous gland secretion; the lesions are covered with a slightly adherent oily scale.
Synonym(s): dyssebacia, dyssebacea, seborrheic dermatosis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, Unna disease.

Unna,

Paul Gerson, German dermatologist and staining expert, 1850-1929.
Unna disease - Synonym(s): seborrheic dermatitis
Unna mark - a pale vascular birthmark found on the nape of the neck in 25% to 50% of normal persons. Synonym(s): nape nevus
Unna stain - an alkaline methylene blue stain for plasma cells.
Unna syndrome - Synonym(s): seborrheic dermatitis
Unna-Pappenheim stain - a contrast stain used to detect RNA and DNA in tissue sections; used to demonstrate plasma cells during chronic inflammation.
Unna-Taenzer stain - Synonym(s): Taenzer stain
Unna-Thost syndrome - uniform keratoderma of the palms and soles, usually presenting in the first six months of life.
seborrheic dermatitis 'chronic flaking of skin, especially of the scalp (causing dandruff), face, chest and limb flexures; in adults may be associated with malassezia fungal skin infection, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy'

seborrheic dermatitis (se·b·rēˑ·ik der·m·tīˑ·tis),

n a disorder of the skin; characterized by loose white or yellowish scales that may feel oily or dry and are located on the scalp, eyelids, eyebrows, or lips. It may also develop inside or outside the ears and the skin of the trunk, specifically in the areas that cover the sternum and near the folds of skin. The origin is unknown, but hereditary factors and fatigue, stress, weather, other disorders of the skin, and poor hygiene seem to increase the risk.
Enlarge picture
Seborrheic dermatitis.

seb·or·rhe·ic der·ma·ti·tis

, dermatitis seborrheica (seb'ōr-ē'ik dĕr'mă-tī'tis, seb-ōr-ē'i-kă)
A common scaly macular eruption that occurs primarily on the face, scalp (dandruff), and other areas of increased sebaceous gland secretion.
Synonym(s): dyssebacia, dyssebacea, Unna disease.

seborrheic

affected with or of the nature of seborrhoea.

seborrheic dermatitis
see seborrheic dermatitis.
seborrheic disease
seborrheic keratosis
see seborrheic keratosis.
seborrheic plaque
chronic, erythematous, scaly skin plaque which is associated with staphylococcal hypersensitivity.
References in periodicals archive ?
and antifungal treatments in patients with seborrheic dermatitis.
While the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not fully understood, recent research has identified three of the most probable contributors to the development of seborrheic dermatitis:
Patients with moderate to severe facial seborrheic dermatitis will be enrolled in the study and treated for four weeks after randomisation.
Extina(R) (ketoconazole) Foam, 2% is indicated for the topical treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in immunocompetent patients 12 years of age and older.
The phase 2B program follows a positive phase 2A proof of concept study in which ASF-1057 showed a remarkably strong anti-inflammatory effect in seborrheic dermatitis.
The key to treating and alleviating seborrheic dermatitis is killing the fungus.
These advantages, in addition to a lower propensity for skin irritation as compared to current ketoconazole cream products, make Sebazole a meaningful step forward in the non-steroidal management of this condition and provide significant patient benefit in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.
Ciclopirox olamine is a broad spectrum anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory agent used to treat a variety of fungus and yeast skin infections, including seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp.
Calgenex Corporation today announced the introduction of Dermalleve, a new over-the-counter (OTC) topical drug treatment for psoriasis, eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis.
Now, new data reveal how to effectively banish dandruff, clinically known as seborrheic dermatitis, without going to such lengths.
Trial to Confirm Prior Barrier Studies in Which Sebazole(TM) Achieved Positive Safety and Efficacy Results in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis -
NCX 1022 showed statistically significant improvement in clinical efficacy symptoms including erythema, scaling and pruritis in 40 patients with seborrheic dermatitis treated for 28 days.