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a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing, and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue. The condition of the tongue can sometimes be a guide to the general condition of the body. glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) can accompany anemia, scarlet fever, nutritional deficiencies, and most general infections. Sometimes it is part of an adverse reaction to medication. One form of glossitis causes a smooth tongue, with a red, glazed appearance. A coated or furry tongue may be present in a variety of illnesses, but does not necessarily indicate illness. A dry tongue sometimes indicates insufficiency of fluids in the body, or it may result from fever. When the tongue is extremely dry and has a leathery appearance, the cause may be uremia.
bifid tongue a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
black tongue (black hairy tongue) hairy tongue in which the hypertrophied filiform papillae are brown or black; called also lingua nigra, melanoglossia, and nigrities linguae.
cleft tongue bifid tongue.
coated tongue one covered with a white or yellow layer of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, or other material.
fissured tongue (furrowed tongue) a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
geographic tongue a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
hairy tongue a benign condition of the tongue characterized by hypertrophy of the filiform papillae that gives the dorsum of the tongue a furry appearance. The color of the elongated papillae varies from yellowish white to brown or black, depending upon staining by substances such as tobacco, foods, or drugs.
raspberry tongue a diffusely reddened and swollen, uncoated tongue, as seen several days after the onset of the rash in scarlet fever.
scrotal tongue fissured tongue.
strawberry tongue, red raspberry t.
strawberry tongue, white the white-coated tongue with prominent red papillae characteristic of the early stage of scarlet fever; the coating desquamates, leaving a beefy red (raspberry) tongue.
a painless condition of the tongue characterized by numerous grooves or furrows on the dorsal surface.
a seldom used term for a nonpathological condition in which the tongue is deeply furrowed and resembles the surface of the scrotum. See fissured tongue.
scrotal tongueGrooved tongue Congenital tongue furrows seen in Melkerson-Rosenthal syndrome or Down syndrome; the furrows are attributed to sucking and mouth breathing; the finding has no pathologic significance and is only of interest, as food particles get stuck and are later colonized by oral bacteria, evoking halitosis Treatment Brush teeth, tongue.
a muscular organ on the floor of the mouth; it aids in chewing, swallowing and speech, and is the location of organs of taste. The taste buds are located in the papillae, which are projections on the upper surface of the tongue.
as well as true abscesses there are pseudoabscesses, common in companion birds, which are accumulations of inspissated, keratinized, epithelial debris, caused usually by a nutritional deficiency of vitamin A.
a tongue with a lengthwise cleft.
see bird tongue.
one covered with a whitish or yellowish layer consisting of desquamated epithelium, debris, bacteria, fungi, etc.
see thyroglossal cyst.
the tongue may be shrunken because of prior inflammation, the tip may have been torn off, e.g. in lambs by predators. There is difficulty in prehending food and in managing in the mouth so that saliva and ruminal juices drool down the chin staining skin. Called tobacco chewers.
caused by local obstruction to venous blood flow, most dramatically displayed in a fetus presented anteriorly but delayed in parturition because of incompatibility in size between it and the birth canal, or bee or other hymenoptera sting.
see lingual frenulum.
a tongue with numerous furrows or grooves on the dorsal surface, often radiating from a groove on the midline.
a tongue with denuded patches, surrounded by thickened epithelium.
one with the papillae elongated and hairlike.
an occasional congenital anomaly in pigs.
inherited smooth tongue
see smooth tongue.
one that protrudes from the mouth, usually to one side. Seen in some short-nosed dogs and as a vice in horses.
see lyssa (2).
caused by paralysis (hypoglossal nerve dysfunction), Phalaris spp. poisoning, swelling, e.g. edema, laceration.
a vice in housed cattle. The animal rolls its tongue around in its half-opened mouth and may partially swallow it.
see tongue rolling (above).