scotoma

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scotoma

 [sko-to´mah] (Gr.)
1. an area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field, surrounded by an area of less depressed or of normal vision.
2. mental scotoma. adj., adj scotom´atous.
absolute scotoma an area within the visual field in which perception of light is entirely lost.
annular scotoma a circular area of depressed vision surrounding the point of fixation.
arcuate scotoma an arc-shaped defect of vision arising in an area near the blind spot and extending toward it.
central scotoma an area of depressed vision corresponding with the fixation point and interfering with or abolishing central vision.
centrocecal scotoma a horizontal oval defect in the visual field situated between and embracing both the fixation point and the blind spot.
color scotoma an isolated area of depressed or defective vision for color in the visual field.
hemianopic scotoma depressed or lost vision affecting half of the central visual field; see also hemianopia.
mental scotoma in psychiatry, a figurative blind spot in a person's psychological awareness, the patient being unable to gain insight into and to understand his mental problems; lack of insight.
negative scotoma a scotoma appearing as a blank spot in the visual field; the patient is unaware of it, and it is detected only by examination.
peripheral scotoma an area of depressed vision toward the periphery of the visual field.
physiologic scotoma that area of the visual field corresponding with the optic disk, in which the photosensitive receptors are absent.
positive scotoma one which appears as a dark spot in the visual field.
relative scotoma an area of the visual field in which perception of light is only diminished, or loss is restricted to light of certain wavelengths.
ring scotoma annular s.
scintillating scotoma blurring of vision with the sensation of a luminous appearance before the eyes, with a zigzag, wall-like outline; called also teichopsia.

sco·to·ma

, pl.

sco·to·ma·ta

(skō-tō'mă, skō-tō'mă-tă), Do not confuse this word with scatoma.
1. An isolated area of varying size and shape, within the visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
2. A blind spot in psychological awareness.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]

scotoma

/sco·to·ma/ (sko-to´mah) pl. scoto´mata  
1. an area of depressed vision in the visual field, surrounded by an area of less depressed or of normal vision.
2. mental s.scotom´atous

annular scotoma  circular area of depressed vision surrounding the point of fixation.
central scotoma  an area of depressed vision corresponding with the point of fixation and interfering with central vision.
centrocecal scotoma  a horizontal oval defect in the field of vision situated between and embracing both the point of fixation and the blind spot.
color scotoma  an isolated area of depressed or defective vision for color.
hemianopic scotoma  depressed or lost vision affecting half of the central visual field.
mental scotoma  a figurative blind spot in a person's psychological awareness, the person being unable to gain insight into and to understand their mental problems; lack of insight.
negative scotoma  one which appears as a blank spot or hiatus in the visual field, the patient being unaware of it.
peripheral scotoma  an area of depressed vision toward the periphery of the visual field, distant from the point of fixation.
physiologic scotoma  that area of the visual field corresponding with the optic disk, in which the photosensitive receptors are absent.
positive scotoma  one which appears as a dark spot in the visual field, the patient being aware of it.
relative scotoma  an area of the visual field in which perception of light is only diminished, or loss is restricted to light of certain wavelengths.
ring scotoma  annular s.
scintillating scotoma  teichopsia.

scotoma

(skə-tō′mə)
n. pl. scoto·mas or scoto·mata (-mə-tə)
An area of diminished vision within the visual field.

sco·to′ma·tous adj.

scotoma

[skōtō′mə] pl. scotomas, scotomata
Etymology: Gk, skotos, darkness, oma, tumor
a defect of vision in a defined area of the visual field in one or both eyes. A common prodromal symptom is a shimmering film appearing as an island in the visual field.

scotoma

Neurology A vision defect Psychiatry A figurative blind spot in a person's awareness

sco·to·ma

, pl. scotomata (skō-tō'mă, -mă-tă)
1. An isolated area of varying size and shape, within the visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
2. A blind spot in psychological awareness.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]

scotoma

A blind spot or area in the field of vision. This may be caused by GLAUCOMA, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, MIGRAINE, retinal disorders or a brain tumour.

Scotoma

An area of lost or depressed vision within the visual field surrounded by an area of normal vision. Survivors of retinoblastoma frequently develop scotomas.
Mentioned in: Retinoblastoma

scotoma 

An area of partial or complete blindness surrounded by normal or relatively normal visual field. See angioscotoma; hemianopia; quad-rantanopia.
absolute scotoma A scotoma in which vision is entirely absent in the affected area. See retinoschisis; relative scotoma.
annular scotoma See arcuate scotoma; ring scotoma.
arcuate scotoma Scotoma running from the blind spot into the nasal visual field and following the course of the retinal nerve fibres. A double arcuate scotoma extending both in the upper and lower part of the field may join to make an annular scotoma or ring scotoma. A common cause is glaucoma. Syn. comet scotoma; scimitar scotoma. See arcuate fibres; retinal raphe; Bjerrum's scotoma.
Bjerrum's scotoma An arcuate scotoma extending around the fixation point (usually located between the 10º and 20º circles), which occurs in open-angle glaucoma. It often extends from the horizontal midline to the optic disc (Fig. S4). Syn. Bjerrum's sign. See Roenne nasal step; Seidel's scotoma.
central scotoma A scotoma involving the fixation area.
comet scotoma See arcuate scotoma.
congruous s'. Scotomas in the two visual fields that are identical. They form a single defect in the binocular visual field. Such scotomas are often the result of lesions in the visual cortex.
flittering scotoma See scintillating scotoma.
incongruous s'. Scotomas in the two visual fields that differ in one or more ways. Such scotomas are often the result of lesions in the optic tract.
junction scotoma A visual defect due to a lesion (e.g. a pituitary tumour) at the junction of one optic nerve with the chiasma where it is believed that the inferior nasal fibres of the contralateral optic nerve loop before passing backward to the optic tract. The visual defects typically consist of an upper temporal quadrantanopia in the field of the contralateral eye with, usually, a temporal hemicentral scotoma in the ipsilateral eye. Some authors attribute these visual defects to prechiasmal compression of one optic nerve plus compression of the whole chiasma. See Wilbrand's knee.
negative scotoma A scotoma of which the person is unaware. The physiological blind spot is an example of a negative scotoma but it is usually referred to as a physiological scotoma.
paracentral scotoma 
A scotoma involving the area adjacent to the fixation area.
physiological scotoma See negative scotoma.
positive scotoma A scotoma of which the person is aware.
relative scotoma A scotoma in which there is some vision left or in which there is blindness to some stimuli, but not to others. See absolute scotoma.
ring scotoma 1. An annular scotoma surrounding the fixation point. It may be formed by the development of two arcuate scotomas. Syn. annular scotoma. 2. A circular area in the peripheral field of view at the edge of a strong convex spectacle lens which is not seen (Fig. S5). This scotoma is due to the prismatic effect at the edge of the lens and unlike other scotomas, not from a pathological condition. When the head turns the ring scotoma also turns and it is then called a roving ring scotoma. See jack-in-the-box phenomenon.
roving ring scotoma See jack-in-the-box phenomenon; ring scotoma.
scimitar scotoma See arcuate scotoma.
scintillating scotoma The sudden appearance of a transient, shimmering scotoma with a zigzag outline of brightly coloured lights (also called a fortification spectrum or fortification figures). It usually occurs as one of the first symptoms of a migraine attack. Syn. flittering scotoma. See migraine; teichopsia.
Seidel's scotoma An arcuate scotoma extending above and below the blind spot found in glaucoma. Syn. Seidel's sign. See Bjerrum's scotoma.
Fig. S4 Bjerrums scotomaenlarge picture
Fig. S4 Bjerrum's scotoma
Fig. S5 Ring scotoma produced by a strong convex spectacle lens (shaded area)enlarge picture
Fig. S5 Ring scotoma produced by a strong convex spectacle lens (shaded area)

sco·to·ma

, pl. scotomata (skō-tō'mă, -mă-tă)
Isolated area of varying size and shape, within visual field, in which vision is absent or depressed.
[G. skotōma, vertigo, fr. skotos, darkness]
References in periodicals archive ?
A 72-year-old woman, with no diagnosis of AMD and a visual acuity of 20/40, had an absolute scotoma in the upper quadrant of the visual field (see Figure 2B).
In this report, we describe the case of a patient with macular disease whose relatively good visual acuity was maintained but whose fixation was surrounded by a ring scotoma.
The patient indicates at which points the laser spots are visible while maintaining fixation on the smallest visible target, and the examiner diagrams the scotoma.
Many patients with ring scotomas also have decreased contrast sensitivity (Rubin & Bressler, 2002; Sunness et al.
Preferred retinal loci and macular scotoma characteristics in patients with age-related macular degeneration.
Preferred retinal loci in relation to macular scotomas in a low vision population.
A lens placed too far from the eye can produce a rim defect (Figure 6), with the appearance of ring-type peripheral scotoma.
It has long been recognized that, presumably because of perceptual completion (or "filling in"), more than 40% of persons with definite scotomas in their central visual field cannot detect them on an Amsler grid (Fine et al.
Patients with good visual acuity with scotomas encroaching on the center pose special problems in low vision rehabilitation.
They will notice central scotomas and have difficulty with fine print and contrast sensitivity.
Improvement in the function of different layers of the retina and optic nerve were experienced as well as a reduction in the number of scotomas in the field of vision.
Many older adults with AMD are trained to locate their eccentric viewing position or preferred retinal locus, as well as to recognize their scotomas or nonseeing areas on the retina.