drug (drug) [Fr. drogue, chemical material]
Any substance that, when taken into a living organism, may modify one or more of its functions.
drug of abuse
Any agent that impairs behavior, health, social interactions, or thought and lends itself to compulsive use. Many of these agents, including ecstasy, lysergic acid (LSD), methamphetamines, the opiates, and phencyclidine, are considered controlled substances in the U.S. Alcohol and tobacco products are not traditionally considered to be drugs of abuse although they are addictive and harm many people.
A drug that either kills microorganisms or prevents their growth.
antisense drugAntisense compound.
A popular term for a hormonal agent that prevents excessive growth in children.
A colloquial term for a drug used for its euphoric or intoxicating effects at a party, rave, nightclub, or bar. Such drugs include ecstasy, gamma hydroxybutyrate, ketamine, and rohypnol.
A drug to treat acute, life-threatening emergencies including dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, and shock. Code drugs include atropine, epinephrine, morphine, and vasopressin. See: basic life support; code (3); code cart
1. Any drug that has been adulterated, contaminated, diluted, or falsely labeled.
2. Any drug marketed under false pretenses.
An illicitly produced drug of abuse. Designer drugs include methamphetamine, fentanyl and its analogues, and phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP). They have serious side effects or are addictive; deaths and injury from overdose are common.
disease-modifying antirheumatic drug Abbreviation: DMARD
A drug that is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and acts more slowly but more effectively than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Such drugs include hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors. Synonym: slow-acting antirheumatic drug
A drug of abuse whose use precedes, and is thought to contribute to, the subsequent use of more dangerous or exotic substances, esp. by young people.
In biochemistry, a drug that is not metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system in the liver, or transported by intestinal P-glycopeptide.
investigational drug Abbreviation: IND
A drug available only for experimental purposes because its safety and effectiveness have not been proven. Synonym: investigational new drug
investigational new drugInvestigational drug.
A medication that cannot be obtained legally without a prescription from a licensed health care provider.
1. Any of a group of solid dosage forms of drugs that mimic various prescription drugs by size, shape, color, and markings. Some of these may be controlled drugs.
2. A drug that works much like another but varies in a minor or insignificant part of its chemical structure.
neuromuscular blocking drug
A type of drug used during the administration of anesthesia to allow surgical access to body cavities, esp. in particular the abdomen and thorax, by preventing voluntary or reflex muscle movement. These drugs are also used to facilitate compliance in critically ill patients undergoing intensive therapy such as mechanical ventilation.
A drug for which premarketing approval is required by the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (a U.S. law granting authority to the FDA to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics).
An over-the-counter medication.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Abbreviation: NSAID
A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic actions. NSAIDs are used to treat acute and chronic pain, e.g., of injuries, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea, to reduce inflammation, and to prevent complications in serious illness such as sepsis.
All NSAIDS increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration and, to some extent, the risk of renal failure, abnormalities in liver function, myocardial infarction, and stroke. These side effects occur most often in older patients, e.g., those with multiple risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease.
Many patients experience side effects of these medications, including upper gastrointestinal inflammation or bleeding. These side effects occur most often in the elderly, tobacco users, and those who drink alcohol. Other potential complications include acute and chronic renal failure, liver function abnormalities, and aseptic meningitis.
Members of this class of drugs include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen.
Patients who are sensitive to NSAID therapy are told to inform caregivers so that they will not be given NSAIDs. Patients are instructed to watch for adverse effects when taking NSAIDs and to report any gastrointestinal pain or bleeding. The patient should be cautioned not to take NSAIDs on an empty stomach but with milk, a meal, or an antacid. Skin should be protected from the sun. Pregnant women should avoid NSAIDs during their last trimester.
A drug effective for a certain illness but not profitable for manufacturers to produce.
Any drug used to gain an advantage in sports. Such drugs may improve endurance or strength or accelerate healing after injury.
The brand-name or patented version of a drug, later copied to make generic drugs after the patent expires.
A drug to improve the principal symptoms, e.g., anxiety, depression, and psychosis, in the mentally disturbed.
A drug that affects psychic function, behavior, or experience. Many drugs can be classed as intentionally psychotropic, but many other drugs also occasionally may produce undesired psychotropic side effects.
A drug that protects humans against the damaging or lethal effects of ionizing radiation. For example, Lugol's solution blocks the uptake of inhaled or ingested radioactive iodine by the thyroid.
A drug used for enjoyment rather than for a medical purpose.
scheduled drug See: Controlled Substance Act
slow-acting antirheumatic drug Abbreviation: SAARD
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.
1. A drug that is easily metabolized by the body to inactive, nontoxic metabolites.
2. An illicit drug that has fewer psychoactive, addictive, or other adverse effects than a street drug orhard drug.
3. A drug that dissolves in the mouth and is quickly absorbed.
A drug that has unusually complex requirements for development, manufacturing, storage, transportation, administration and/or monitoring. Most drugs in this category are extraordinarily expensive.
A drug obtained illegally, usually a drug of abuse.
Any drug of the sulfonamide group possessing bacteriostatic properties.
A drug, e.g., a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, that may cause peptic ulcers.