part 1: sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and scapulothoracic
1,2,3,4] Arthrodesis is irreversible, relies on scapulothoracic
motion and permits only a limited range of abduction and includes a high incidence of complications, e.
KEY WORDS: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, Snapping scapula, Scapulothoracic
Electromyographic activity in the immobilized shoulder girdle musculature during scapulothoracic
13] Upper Crossed Syndrome is characterised by the hypertonic upper trapezius, levator scapulae, and pectoralis muscles, as well as inhibition of the deep cervical flexors, rhomboids, and serratus anterior, which may affect scapulothoracic
In this study, we aim to investigate whether deep neck flexor (DNF) exercise is effective in the management of neck pain when this intervention is added as a supplement to physical therapy agents (PTA) or when it is compared with isometric, stretching, and scapulothoracic
and scapulohumeral exercises: a narrative review of electromyographic studies.
The areas they cover are anatomy and approaches; glenohumeral instability; rotator cuff and biceps; sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joint injuries and clavicle fractures; humeral and scapular fractures; glenohumeral arthritis; muscle ruptures, scapulothoracic
articulation, and nerve problems; additional arthroscopic procedures for the shoulder; tendon disorders of the elbow; elbow stiffness; elbow instability; elbow fractures; and elbow arthritis.
The physical examination should begin by a careful evaluation of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic
ranges of motion.
Although various researchers do not consider it a true measure of the internal rotation of glenohumeral joint,20 yet it is an important functional movement that sum up the contribution of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic
articulation in internal rotation and may reflect the true end range of internal rotation.
Additionally, investigations incorporating three-dimensional modeling are needed to directly assess scapulothoracic
and glenohumeral angular positions on the subacromial space.
7) Motion at the clavicle assists in maintaining scapulothoracic
movement and functionality of the shoulder.