The main etiology described for DSN entrapment is hypertrophy of the middle scalene muscle causing compression of the nerve as it passes through.
The location of the structure described by Maigne (6), and Engel and Gatterman (7) may be the location of the DSN as it pierces the middle scalene as it branches from the anterior rami (21).
52) Plezbert and Nicholson (47) describe the successful treatment of a case of DSN neuropathy secondary to scalene myofascitis.
Functional anatomy of human scalene musculature: rotation of the cervical spine.
More recently, Westbrook (2011) demonstrated that scalene hexagonal columns orientate with two prismatic faces horizontal (i.
We specifically investigate the optical properties of crystals of various sizes that range from trigonal columns with triangular basal faces through scalene columns to hexagonal columns.
The absorption efficiency, however, is consistently lower for trigonal and scalene shapes compared to the hexagonal shaped crystals.
Third, exercises are recommended to strengthen the shoulder girdle muscles and stretch the scalene
On palpation there was slight tenderness in some areas of the cervical and thoracic spine but no major tenderness of the scalene
muscles and no indication of fibromuscular bands or other anomalies in the supraclavicular fossa.
14) In case three, the jump sign elicited during palpation of the scalenes
highlights a more apparent involvement of accessory respiratory muscles.
Palpation revealed mild hypertonicity of the right scalene
, and tenderness of the right clavicle and first rib.