These findings suggest that neurotoxicity and inflammation within the nose and brain are potential adverse health effects of exposure to satratoxins and Stachybotrys in the indoor air of water-damaged buildings.
The satratoxins, macrocyclic trichothecenes produced by S.
chartarum spores or associated satratoxins has been previously shown to initiate acute inflammatory responses in the rodent lung (Yike and Dearborn 2004), our observations that very low doses of SG are directly toxic to OSNs and initiate an inflammatory response in the nose (rhinitis) that extends into the brain (mild focal encephalitis) (Figure 10) are heretofore unreported.
In the future, it will be necessary to ascertain the dose-response effects and latency of recovery in nasal tissue after chronic exposure to satratoxins alone, as well as the contributions of spore matrix, or coexposures to other indoor air contaminants such as endotoxin.
Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes in the murine macrophage.
Apoptosis induction by the satratoxins and other trichothecene mycotoxins: relationship to ERK, p38 MAPK, and SAPK/JNK activation.
Among the fungal species indicative of moisture damage, Stachybotrys chartarum has been a focus of interest in many toxicologic studies, mainly because of its ability to produce various mycotoxins induding satratoxins, which belong to the group of macrocyclic trichothecenes known to have severe cytotoxic capabilities (Jarvis 2002).
chartarum or from closely related fungi (atranones B and E, satratoxin G, trichodermin, 7-[alpha]-hydroxytrichodermol, staplabin, and SMTP-7) and the known fungal toxins sterigmatocystin, citrinin, and ochratoxin A were each tested with Str.
Furthermore, atranones B and E, satratoxin G, and trichodermin (Sta.
Trichodermin was a gift from Lovens Kemiske Fabrik A/S (Ballerup, Denmark); atranones B and E, 7-[alpha]-hydroxytrichodermol, and satratoxin G were a gift from B.
The interaction with the isolated fungal metabolites was tested by exposing the cells to three doses (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/mL) of each merabolite, except for satratoxin G, which was tested with doses 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL because of its toxicity.