To address these shortcomings, Pomerantz and colleagues obtained surgical biopsies of muscles of the head, trunk and leg, and used antibody staining to show that human satellite cells
can be identified by their co-expression of the transcription factor PAX7 with surface proteins CD56 and CD29.
The following instruments, including water bath, centrifuge, incubator, light microscope, confocal microscopy, ice maker, are required for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells
Although it has been noted previously that the fiber-type distribution of satellite cells
may differ between slow and fast limb muscles , this was not a primary aim of this study.
Thus it may be possible that the elbow flexor muscles, with a larger proportion of type II muscle fibers, may transiently turn over their stored supply of PCr during the eccentric contractions to a greater extent, and for at least a few potentially critical minutes following exercise have less PCr available to provide energy for potential recovery related effects such as satellite cell
In an effort to obtain baseline data to study factors underlying this difference, we examined cell division in neuronal and non-neuronal cells obtained from male rats on postnatal day 6, and the appearance of satellite cells
on postnatal days 5, 10 and 15.
It's been known that these satellite cells
are crucial for the regeneration of muscle tissue, but this is the first demonstration of self-renewal of a single cell.
Elevated palmitic acid in plasma or muscle of young cattle may promote trans-differentiation of satellite cells
, leading to muscle steatosis.
One cell-signaling pathway the team identified, known as p38 MAPK, appears to be a major player in making or breaking the skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell
, renewal process in adult mice, Olwin said.
MyoD is markedly more effective in activation and differentiation of satellite cells
, while myogenin is an important factor for terminal differentiation and fusion myoblasts in mature muscle fiber, restoring normal muscle architecture .
The research team, co-led by Fan and Se-Jin Lee, who is a former Carnegie Staff Associate and currently at Johns Hopkins University Medical School, used a variety of techniques -- both genetic and pharmacological -- and determined that the muscle growth caused by inhibiting myostatin does not significantly involve the incorporation of satellite cells
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy are closely related to both the proliferation/differentiation of satellite cells
and the enhancement of protein synthesis (Appell et al.
Rando's team wanted to find out whether such declines should be attributed to changes in the satellite cells
themselves or to changes in the cells' environment as the animals aged.