# sampling error

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## sampling error

Surgical pathology An error in a diagnostic work-up, in which insufficient, inadequate, or non-representative material is obtained for analysis, especially biopsy material, less commonly, cytologic samplings

## sampling error

(in statistics) a statistical phenomenon in which the variation within a sample is inversely related to the size of the sample. In other words, the smaller the sample the larger the sample error. Thus if 100 people toss 10 coins each, the variation within each sample would be quite high, from perhaps 2 heads: 8 tails, to 8 heads: 2 tails. However, if the same 100 people toss 1000 coins each, the variation would be expected to be proportionately less, from perhaps 350 heads: 650 tails to 650 heads: 350 tails. The variation in a sample can be expressed as, for example, mean ± standard error.

## error

the wrong answer in an experiment or result to a questionnaire.

experimental error
of two types, errors of objectivity when the experimenter knows the groups and the expected result, and errors of detection or measurement due to inadequate technique or the uneven application of measuring techniques.
random error
error which occurs due to chance, such as sampling error.
sampling error
one due to the fact that the result obtained from a sample is only an estimate of that obtained from using the entire population.
systematic error
when the error is applied to all results, i.e. those due to bias.
error types I and II
in making a statistical test, you can reject the null hypothesis when it is true (type I) or accept the null hypothesis when it is false (type II).
References in periodicals archive ?
Additional runs might reduce the sampling error because, as the number of runs increased, the mean of the runs and sampling errors per set stabilized.
They also calculated the sampling error for the mean value at 95 percent confidence for each MOE.
8 percent, researchers said, with larger sampling errors for questions answered only by the ministers who had been forced out of their posts.
Because of the complex design of the SCF, the estimation of potential sampling errors is not straightforward.
Selected estimates of sampling errors are given in A.
However, sampling errors also could have occurred when a portion was taken for analysis or when the samples were collected at the foundry.
In theory, with probability samples of these sizes, one can say with 95 percent certainty that the results for the overall samples of adults have sampling errors of plus or minus 3 percentage points.
Sampling errors for the results of the following sub-samples: Echo Boomers, those born between 1979 and 1986 (98); Gen Xers, those born between 1965 and 1978 (381); and Baby Boomers, those born between 1946 and 1964 (587); are higher and vary.

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