salmon


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

calcitonin (salmon)

APO-Calcitonin, Calcimar, Caltine, Fortical, Miacalcic (UK), Miacalcin, Miacalcin Nasal Spray, Sandoz Calcitonin

Pharmacologic class: Hormone (calcium-lowering)

Therapeutic class: Hypocalcemic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Directly affects bone, kidney, and GI tract. Decreases osteoclastic osteolysis in bone; also reduces mineral release and collagen breakdown in bone and promotes renal excretion of calcium. In pain relief, acts through prostaglandin inhibition, pain threshold modification, or beta-endorphin stimulation.

Availability

Injection: 0.5 mg/ml (human), 1 mg/ml (human), 200 international units/ml in 2-ml vials (salmon)

Nasal spray (salmon): 200 international units/actuation, metered nasal spray in 3.7 ml-bottle

Indications and dosages

Postmenopausal osteoporosis

Adults:Calcitonin (salmon)-100 international units/day I.M. or subcutaneously, or 200 international units/day intranasally with concurrent supplemental calcium and vitamin D

Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans)

Adults:Calcitonin (salmon)-Initially, 100 international units/day I.M. or subcutaneously; after titration, maintenance dosage is 50 to 100 international units daily or every other day (three times weekly). Calcitonin (human)-0.5 mg I.M. or subcutaneously daily, reduced to 0.25 mg daily.

Hypercalcemia

Adults:Calcitonin (salmon)-4 international units/kg I.M. or subcutaneously q 12 hours; after 1 or 2 days, may increase to 8 international units/kg q 12 hours; after 2 more days, may increase further, if needed, to 8 international units q 6 hours.

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or salmon
• Pregnancy or breastfeeding

Precautions

Use cautiously in:
• renal insufficiency, pernicious anemia
• children.

Administration

Before salmon calcitonin therapy begins, perform skin test, if prescribed. Don't give drug if patient has positive reaction. Have epinephrine available.
• Bring nasal spray to room temperature before using.
• Give intranasal dose as one spray in one nostril daily; alternate nostrils every day.
• To minimize adverse effects, give at bedtime.
• Rotate injection sites to decrease inflammatory reactions.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, weakness, dizziness, paresthesia

CV: chest pain

EENT: epistaxis, nasal irritation, rhinitis

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, epigastric pain or discomfort

GU: urinary frequency

Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, back pain

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: rash

Other: altered taste, allergic reactions including facial flushing, swelling, and anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug.Previous use of bisphosphonates (alendronate, etidronate, pamidronate, risedronate): decreased response to calcitonin

Patient monitoring

• Monitor for adverse reactions during first few days of therapy.
• Assess alkaline phosphatase level and 24-hour urinary excretion of hydroxyproline.
• Check urine for casts.
• Monitor serum electrolyte and calcium levels.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug before bedtime to lessen GI upset. Tell him to call prescriber if he can't maintain his usual diet because of GI upset.
• Inform patient using nasal spray that runny nose, sneezing, and nasal irritation may occur during first several days as he adjusts to spray.
• Instruct patient to bring nasal spray to room temperature before using.
• Advise patient to blow nose before using spray, to take intranasal dose as one spray in one nostril daily, and to alternate nostrils with each dose.
• Tell patient to discard unrefrigerated bottles of calcitonin (salmon) nasal spray after 30 days.
• Encourage patient to consume a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D.
• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

Relating to mucocutaneous lesions with a ‘salmon’ colour

salmon

farmed finfish; many species in the genera Salmo and Oncorhyncus.

salmon louse
Lepeophtherius salmonis.
salmon poisoning, salmon disease
a disease of dogs and other canids which eat salmon from streams in the Pacific Northwest of the USA, and caused by neorickettsia helminthoeca. The infection is transmitted by the fluke, Nanophyetus salmincola, parasitic in the salmon. The disease in dogs is characterized by fever, ocular discharge and edema of the eyelids, followed by vomiting, then diarrhea and later severe dysentery and death in untreated cases. See also elokomin fluke fever.
References in periodicals archive ?
Heidi Stone, the Environment Agencys Salmon Programme Manager said: We are working hard to improve salmon stocks and are seeking views on measures to further protect this important species.
The only king salmon producer in New Zealand can harvest, process and distribute on the same day, often within hours of harvest.
8220;The best way for former Salmon Watch students to connect with the program and tell their stories is through our Facebook page,” Saunders said.
Another source predicted the move would trigger increases in Chilean salmon production - prompting global prices to fall.
On occasion the salmon will take the fly immediately it sees it land on the water and at other times it just moves slowly towards it, as if playing with it.
Four salmon were caught on the shrimp between 5lb and 18lb in deep pools on the South Tyne.
La operacion emprendida por Icicle en Chile, a la que no ha afectado la epidemia, espera tener a Japon como principal mercado de salmon plateado y trucha, seguido de Europa.
Six years ago, that team showed that diazinon significantly impaired responses by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to alarm scents and reduced their success in finding their natal pools.
Safely nestled in their southern dream home, the Salmons are a prime example of Declaration of Financial Empowerment Principle No.
Ransom Myers, professor of biology at Nova Scotia's Dalhousie University, hopes the study will move the Canadian government to protect wild salmon populations from rapidly growing fish farms.
The link that closes the epidemiologic chain between the Brazilian outbreak of fish tapeworm infections and the aquaculture of salmon in southern Chile is that some of the freshwater lakes where D.
Despite getting two hits Saturday and belting his 297th career home run, Salmon wasn't in the starting lineup Sunday against the Texas Rangers, but starting tonight, that figures to change.