salivary calculus


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sal·i·var·y cal·cu·lus

a calculus in a salivary duct or gland.

calculus

(kal'kyu-lus) (-li?, -le?) plural.calculi [L. calculus, pebble]
A stone. It is usually composed of mineral salts. Stones can occur in the gallbladder, kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. See: gallstone; kidney stone

biliary calculus

Gallstone.

dendritic calculus

A renal stone molded in the form of the pelvis and calyces.

dental calculus

Mineralized dental plaque, located above or below the gums.

hemic calculus

A calculus formed from coagulated blood.

pancreatic calculus

A calculus in the pancreas, made of calcium carbonate with other salts and inorganic materials.

prostatic calculus

A stone in the prostate.

renal calculus

A calculus in the kidney that may block urine flow. If the ureter is blocked by the stone, there is sudden, severe, and paroxysmal renal colic often with chills, fever, hematuria, and frequency of urination. If stones do not pass spontaneously, they should be removed.

Treatment

Pain relief should be a priority, as should forcing fluids unless passage is completely blocked by the calculus. Smooth muscle relaxants help in passing the stone and relieving pain. If the stone is preventing urine flow or continues to grow and cause infection, surgery must be performed. Alternatively, the stone may be disintegrated ultrasonically. Synonym: kidney stone; urolith; See: extracorporeal shock-wave lithotriptor; laser treatment for kidney stone removal

salivary calculus

Salivary stone.

urinary calculus

A stone formed in the urinary tract, but usually found in the renal pelvis and/or kidney calyces. These vary in composition but may contain urates, calcium, oxalate, calcium carbonate, phosphates, and cystine. See: lithotriptor

Symptoms

Predisposing factors include dehydration, infection, obstruction, and metabolic factors. In the U.S., urinary stones develop in 2% to 10% of people, more often in southeastern states than in other parts of the country. Males have a 3 times higher rate than females, esp. between ages 30 and 40. Struvite calculi, which account for about 15% of all stones, are found primarily in females, usually related to urinary tract infections. Pain related to obstruction is the primary symptom. Classic renal colic travels from the costovertebral angle to the suprapubic region and external genitalia. Its intensity fluctuates, but is excruciating at its peak. Nausea and vomiting usually accompany the most severe pain. Diagnosis is based on the clinical picture plus CT scan or MRI, excretory urography, KUB X-rays, and stone analysis.

Patient care

The patient is encouraged to verbalize anxieties and concerns about the severe pain. Pain relief measures are instituted as prescribed: they include analgesics, antispasmodics, and warm, moist heat. All urine is strained for stones, and any calculus is sent for laboratory analysis. Vigorous hydration with oral or intravenous fluids helps in passage of small stones (90% are smaller than 5 mm in diameter). If a lithotriptor is to be used to shatter the calculus for removal by suction or natural passage, the duration of the procedure and follow-up care are explained. Procedures for surgical removal depend on the location of the calculus; they include cystoscopy with ureteral manipulation, or a flank or lower abdominal laparoscopic or open approach. All diagnostic studies are explained, and the patient is encouraged to verbalize fears and concerns. Urine is observed for hematuria, and specimens are tested for specific gravity and pH. Vital signs are monitored. If temperature is elevated, antipyretic measures are instituted as ordered, and antibiotics specific to cultured organisms are prescribed. Fluids are forced (PO/IV) to enhance dilution of urine, and intake and output are monitored. Fruit juices, specifically cranberry juice or cranberry tablets, help to acidify urine. The health care professional stays alert for complications such as infection, stasis, and retention. A catheter is inserted as ordered. Dietary management is based on the composition of the stone. If phosphate stones are present, patients should increase their intake of acid-ash foods such as cereals, eggs, meat, and cranberry and grape juices. Those prone to uric acid stones should consume an alkaline-ash diet of green vegetables and fruits and avoid foods high in purine. To minimize urinary tract infections, esp. for females, the patient is taught proper perineal hygiene, and the need for increased fluid intake is emphasized.

After surgery, the patient usually has an indwelling catheter or a nephrostomy tube in place. Bloody drainage is expected, and this tube should never be irrigated without a physician's order. If the kidney was removed, the patient should be reassured that the body can adapt well to one kidney. Pulmonary hygiene with an inspirometer is stressed in the presence of flank or abdominal incisions. Dressings are assessed for drainage and are changed per protocol, and signs of hemorrhage or infection are reported promptly.

vesical calculus

A kidney stone that has lodged or formed in the urinary bladder.

sal·i·var·y cal·cu·lus

(sali-var-ē kalkyū-lŭs)
Calculus in a salivary duct or gland.

calculus

pl. calculi [L.] an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the animal body, chiefly in the hollow organs or their passages. Called also stones, as in kidney stones (urolithiasis) and gallstones. See also hippomanes.

biliary calculus
a gallstone.
bronchial calculus
see bronchial calculus.
dental calculus
mineralized deposits of calcium phosphate and carbonate, with organic matter, deposited on tooth surfaces. Found commonly in dogs and cats, sometimes in horses, rarely in sheep. May initiate caries and peridontal disease.
lung calculus
a concretion formed in the bronchi. See also bronchial calculus.
pancreatic calculus
very small (4 to 5 mm) calculi in pancreatic ducts, rare and of no pathogenic importance.
prostatic calculus
concretions of calcium phosphates and carbonates in the prostatic ducts are rare and of no clinical significance.
renal calculus
salivary calculus
white, hard, laminated concretions in the salivary duct; a sialolith. Occurs most commonly in horses.
urethral calculus
a calculus lodged in the urethra causes obstruction of the urethra with a potential for causing rupture of the bladder or perforation of the urethra and leaking of urine into subcutaneous or retroperitoneal sites. See also urolith, urolithiasis.
urinary calculus
a calculus in any part of the urinary tract. See urolithiasis.
vesical calculus
a urolith in the urinary bladder.

salivary

pertaining to the saliva.

salivary amylase
an α-amylase, ptyalin, initiates digestion of starch and glycogen in the mouth. Dogs, cats and horses appear not to secrete the enzyme.
salivary calculus
salivary duct atresia
a congenital absence of lumen in the duct; causes distention then atrophy of the gland.
salivary duct dilatation
see ranula.
salivary ducts
excretory ducts that carry the saliva from the glands to the mouth cavity.