salicylate


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Related to salicylate: salicylate poisoning, methyl salicylate, benzyl salicylate, Salicylate sensitivity

salicylate

 [sah-lis´ĭ-lāt]
any salt or ester of salicylic acid; those used as drugs for their analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory effects include aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, and sodium salicylate. Low dosages of salicylates are used primarily for the relief of mild to moderate pain or fever; high dosages are particularly useful for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatoid disorders.



The mechanism of most of the effects of aspirin and other salicylates is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thus blocking pyretic and inflammatory processes that are mediated by prostaglandins. Aspirin also prolongs bleeding time through its effects on platelets owing to both inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and acetylation of platelet structures. Salicylates also cause ulceration and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastric mucosa. They act by interfering with the stomach's mucosal barrier (either directly or possibly by an effect on prostaglandins when given parenterally) so that H+ ions leak and there is subsequent damage. Aspirin should not be taken with alcohol, because this increases gastrointestinal damage. Aspirin should be avoided by persons with gastric ulcers, hemophilia, or hemorrhagic states, and by children with a viral illness.

Another problem associated with the use of salicylates is hypersensitivity. This most commonly occurs with aspirin and is less common with other salicylates. Aspirin-sensitive individuals often also react to other antiinflammatory agents, such as indomethacin, and to a yellow dye used to color foods and drugs called tartrazine or FD & C Yellow No. 5. The allergic reaction usually takes the form of edema of the face and intestinal tract and asthma. Aspirin sensitivity occurs in about 0.25–1.0 per cent of the population and is more common in persons with a history of asthma or other allergic disorders. There is a common association with nasal polyps.
Salicylate Poisoning. Mild salicylate toxicity, which can occur from high dosage therapy, has symptoms that include headache, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, nausea, vomiting, and acid-base disturbances. If the poisoning occurs in the home, a poison control center should be contacted immediately. Large overdoses produce acute poisoning that is a medical emergency. Treatment consists of gastrointestinal decontamination, administration of intravenous fluids to correct dehydration and acid-base imbalance, and hemodialysis if serum salicylate levels are very high. Body sponging with cool water is done for hyperpyrexia. Blood salicylate levels and blood gases and electrolytes are periodically determined by laboratory tests. Life-threatening poisoning may require exchange transfusion or renal dialysis.
methyl salicylate see under methyl.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt), Although this word is correctly accented on the first syllable, the pronunciation shown is nearly universal in the U.S.
1. A salt or ester of salicylic acid.
2. To treat foodstuffs with salicylic acid as a preservative. Synonym(s): salicylize

salicylate

/sal·i·cyl·ate/ (sal´ĭ-sil″āt) (sah-lis´ĭ-lāt)
1. a salt, anion, or ester of salicylic acid.
2. any of a group of related compounds derived from salicylic acid, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and have analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory activity; included are acetylsalicylic acid, choline s., magnesium s., and sodium s.

methyl salicylate  see under methyl.

salicylate

[səlis′əlāt]
Etymology: Gk, salix, willow, hyle, matter
any of several widely prescribed drugs derived from salicylic acid. Salicylates exert analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory actions. The most important is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Sodium salicylate also has been used systemically, and it exerts similar effects. Many of the actions of aspirin appear to result from its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis. Aspirin is used in a wide variety of conditions, and, in the usual analgesic dosage, it causes only mild adverse effects. Severe occult GI bleeding or gastric ulcers may occur with frequent use. Large doses taken over a long period can cause significant impairment of hemostasis. Occasionally an asthmalike reaction is produced in hypersensitive individuals. Because of the ready availability of aspirin, accidental and intentional overdosage is common. Symptoms of salicylate intoxication include tinnitus, GI disturbances, abnormal respiration, acid-base imbalance, and central nervous system disturbances. Fatalities have resulted from ingestion of as little as 10 grains of aspirin in adults or as little as 4 mL of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) in children. In addition to aspirin and sodium salicylate, which are used systemically, methyl salicylate is used topically as a counterirritant in ointments and liniments. Methyl salicylate can be absorbed through the skin in amounts capable of causing systemic toxicity. Another salicylate, salicylic acid, is too irritating to be used systemically and is used topically as a keratolytic agent, for example, for removing warts. See also salicylic acid.

salicylate

Salicylic acid Pharmacology The analgesic derivative of aspirin, used topically as a keratolytic. See Salicylism.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt)
1. A salt or ester of salicylic acid.
2. To treat foodstuffs with salicylic acid as a preservative.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt)
A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

salicylate

any salt or ester of salicylic acid. The salicylates used as drugs for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects include aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), methyl salicylate and sodium salicylate. Low dosages of salicylates are used primarily for the relief of mild-to-moderate pain or fever.
The mechanism of most of the effects of aspirin and other salicylates is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thus blocking pyretic and inflammatory processes that are mediated by prostaglandins.
Aspirin also prolongs the bleeding time through its effects on platelets owing to both inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and acetylation of platelet structures. Salicylates also cause ulceration and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastric mucosa; the same mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects increase the production of stomach acid, decrease the secretion of protective mucus and increase bleeding. See also aspirin poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Steinberg cautions that the levels of salicylate used in the experiments are far higher than one would get from a regular aspirin; it remains to be seen if lower doses would have the same effect.
Co-author Greg Steinberg of McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, then tested high doses of salicylate on various types of mice.
Salicylate, which is derived from willow bark, and is the active ingredient in aspirin, is believed to be one of the oldest drugs in the world with first reports of its use dating back to an Egyptian papyrus in 1543 BC.
He found that those engineered to lack AMPK did not experience similar metabolic effects from salicylate as observed in mice with AMPK.
However in this study, we did not observe additive effects of [beta]-myrcene or methyl salicylate.
Clinical chemistry laboratory records between January 2006 and June 2007 were reviewed to identify all patients for whom blood salicylate levels had been requested.
Given that increased adiposity promotes subacute/ chronic inflammation and NF-[kappa]B activation, one would expect the antiinflammatory actions of salicylate to inhibit NF-[kappa]B, thereby suppressing insulin resistance and lowering the blood glucose concentration (34).
The MHRA's new advice on oral salicylate gels for use in under-16s does not affect Bonjela Teething Gel.
Metabolic acidosis can also occur by poisoning from ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol or salicylates.
Arielle Newman, a 17 year-old cross-country runner from New York died after her body absorbed high levels of methyl salicylate, an antiinflammatory drug found in sports creams designed to sooth aching muscles.
Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were used as positive controls for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity respectively.
This diversity may be due to factors such as varietal vagaries, growing conditions, shelf life and different methodology approaches used to analyse salicylate content.