salicylate


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salicylate

 [sah-lis´ĭ-lāt]
any salt or ester of salicylic acid; those used as drugs for their analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory effects include aspirin, choline salicylate, magnesium salicylate, and sodium salicylate. Low dosages of salicylates are used primarily for the relief of mild to moderate pain or fever; high dosages are particularly useful for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatoid disorders.



The mechanism of most of the effects of aspirin and other salicylates is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thus blocking pyretic and inflammatory processes that are mediated by prostaglandins. Aspirin also prolongs bleeding time through its effects on platelets owing to both inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and acetylation of platelet structures. Salicylates also cause ulceration and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastric mucosa. They act by interfering with the stomach's mucosal barrier (either directly or possibly by an effect on prostaglandins when given parenterally) so that H+ ions leak and there is subsequent damage. Aspirin should not be taken with alcohol, because this increases gastrointestinal damage. Aspirin should be avoided by persons with gastric ulcers, hemophilia, or hemorrhagic states, and by children with a viral illness.

Another problem associated with the use of salicylates is hypersensitivity. This most commonly occurs with aspirin and is less common with other salicylates. Aspirin-sensitive individuals often also react to other antiinflammatory agents, such as indomethacin, and to a yellow dye used to color foods and drugs called tartrazine or FD & C Yellow No. 5. The allergic reaction usually takes the form of edema of the face and intestinal tract and asthma. Aspirin sensitivity occurs in about 0.25–1.0 per cent of the population and is more common in persons with a history of asthma or other allergic disorders. There is a common association with nasal polyps.
Salicylate Poisoning. Mild salicylate toxicity, which can occur from high dosage therapy, has symptoms that include headache, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, nausea, vomiting, and acid-base disturbances. If the poisoning occurs in the home, a poison control center should be contacted immediately. Large overdoses produce acute poisoning that is a medical emergency. Treatment consists of gastrointestinal decontamination, administration of intravenous fluids to correct dehydration and acid-base imbalance, and hemodialysis if serum salicylate levels are very high. Body sponging with cool water is done for hyperpyrexia. Blood salicylate levels and blood gases and electrolytes are periodically determined by laboratory tests. Life-threatening poisoning may require exchange transfusion or renal dialysis.
methyl salicylate see under methyl.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt), Although this word is correctly accented on the first syllable, the pronunciation shown is nearly universal in the U.S.
1. A salt or ester of salicylic acid.
2. To treat foodstuffs with salicylic acid as a preservative. Synonym(s): salicylize

salicylate

/sal·i·cyl·ate/ (sal´ĭ-sil″āt) (sah-lis´ĭ-lāt)
1. a salt, anion, or ester of salicylic acid.
2. any of a group of related compounds derived from salicylic acid, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis and have analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory activity; included are acetylsalicylic acid, choline s., magnesium s., and sodium s.

methyl salicylate  see under methyl.

salicylate

[səlis′əlāt]
Etymology: Gk, salix, willow, hyle, matter
any of several widely prescribed drugs derived from salicylic acid. Salicylates exert analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory actions. The most important is acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin. Sodium salicylate also has been used systemically, and it exerts similar effects. Many of the actions of aspirin appear to result from its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase, a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis. Aspirin is used in a wide variety of conditions, and, in the usual analgesic dosage, it causes only mild adverse effects. Severe occult GI bleeding or gastric ulcers may occur with frequent use. Large doses taken over a long period can cause significant impairment of hemostasis. Occasionally an asthmalike reaction is produced in hypersensitive individuals. Because of the ready availability of aspirin, accidental and intentional overdosage is common. Symptoms of salicylate intoxication include tinnitus, GI disturbances, abnormal respiration, acid-base imbalance, and central nervous system disturbances. Fatalities have resulted from ingestion of as little as 10 grains of aspirin in adults or as little as 4 mL of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) in children. In addition to aspirin and sodium salicylate, which are used systemically, methyl salicylate is used topically as a counterirritant in ointments and liniments. Methyl salicylate can be absorbed through the skin in amounts capable of causing systemic toxicity. Another salicylate, salicylic acid, is too irritating to be used systemically and is used topically as a keratolytic agent, for example, for removing warts. See also salicylic acid.

salicylate

Salicylic acid Pharmacology The analgesic derivative of aspirin, used topically as a keratolytic. See Salicylism.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt)
1. A salt or ester of salicylic acid.
2. To treat foodstuffs with salicylic acid as a preservative.

sa·lic·y·late

(să-lis'i-lāt)
A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

salicylate

any salt or ester of salicylic acid. The salicylates used as drugs for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects include aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), methyl salicylate and sodium salicylate. Low dosages of salicylates are used primarily for the relief of mild-to-moderate pain or fever.
The mechanism of most of the effects of aspirin and other salicylates is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, thus blocking pyretic and inflammatory processes that are mediated by prostaglandins.
Aspirin also prolongs the bleeding time through its effects on platelets owing to both inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and acetylation of platelet structures. Salicylates also cause ulceration and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastric mucosa; the same mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects increase the production of stomach acid, decrease the secretion of protective mucus and increase bleeding. See also aspirin poisoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
The cause is unknown; however, salicylates have been implicated as a possible causative agent.
Methyl salicylate and especially benzyl acetate were relatively effective in attracting Eulaema species, and the large eucalyptol vs.
base stocks and additives of the various lubricants Number Base stock additive 1 Type III Salicylate 2 Type III Sulfonate 3 Type III Salicylate 4 Type III Salicylate 5 Type III Sulfonate 6 Type II Salicylate 7 Type I Salicylate 8 Type IV Salicylate 9 Type 111+10% Type V Salicylate 10 Type 111+10% Type VI Salicylate 11 Type III Salicylate Table 2.
PANI and POA and the copolymer PAOA5 coatings on mild steel substrate from aqueous salicylate solution, are shown in Fig.
Jasmonate, salicylate and their methyl esters are the naturally occurring regulators of higher plants and can induce endogenous level of secondary metabolites after exogenous application (Bi et al.
Qualitative phase analysis of the samples showed presence of organic compounds like GB- Naphthylbismuth dioxide (1), Sodium hippurate (2), Sodium-GA-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate tetrahydrate (3), Potassium phenoxide (4), Bismuth salicylate (5), Cadmium salicylate hydrate (6), Barium phenolsulfonate (7) the relevant codes specified in brackets shown in (Table 2).
Most of the second- and third-degree burns were associated with products that contain menthol as the single active ingredient and with products that contain a combination of menthol (concentration greater than 3%) and methyl salicylate (concentration greater than 10%).
Experiments showed that salicylate did not impact levels of AMP or ADP.
Salicylate, found in willow bark, has been a key ingredient in medicine cabinets for thousands of years - ancient Egyptian manuscripts describe it as a treatment for inflammation.
In the current paper we show that, in contrast to exercise or metformin which increase AMPK activity by altering the cells energy balance, the effects of salicylate is totally reliant on a single Ser108 amino acid of the beta 1 subunit.
Aspirin, which is one of the world's oldest medicines known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, rapidly breaks down inside the body into salicylate.