The family Podocarpaceae with its highly reduced ovulate cone presents a partial solution dependent not only on saccate pollen, but also on cone morphology and orientation, the virtually ubiquitous presence of a pollination drop, and specialization of the surface layers of the cone axis onto which the drop is secreted (Mill et al.
All lack saccate pollen (Larix, Pseudolarix and Tsuga spp.
A common feature is the absence of functionally saccate pollen.
Loss of saccate pollen: the only likely vestige of this in flowering plants is the tectate- columellate or alveolate exine, the site for proteins involved in the cell recognition system.
Interpreting the function of saccate pollen in ancient conifers and other seed plants.
Flotaton preferentially selects saccate pollen during conifer pollination New Phytologist 188: 273-279.
Wet-table and unsinkable: the hydrodynamics of saccate pollen grains in relation to the pollination mechanism in the two New Zealand species of Prumnopitys Phil.
Aerodynamics of saccate pollen and its implications for wind pollination.