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runningforward motion characterized by both feet being simultaneously off the ground surface at a point during the gait cycle (contrast with walking, where one of the feet is always in contact throughout the gait cycle); during running the lower limb adopts a more varus position, the centre of gravity follows a more vertical path, there is greater lower-limb/foot deceleration, and a need for greater shock absorption and propulsive forces than for walking Table 1
|Walking||Slow running||Fast running|
|Contact phase (60%) ||Shorter contact phase (50%)||Short contact phase (40%)|
|5 cm base of gait (intermalleolar distance)||>5 cm base of gait|
|Short swing phase (40%)||Longer swing phase (70%)||Long swing phase (80%)|
|Short period of double support (10%)||40% of cycle without support (= airborne phase)||60% of cycle without support (= airborne phase)|