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pertaining to the rumen.
see ruminal pH (below).
cessation of normal rhythmic contractions for more than 2 minutes. Caused by many factors including peritonitis, ruminal acidity or alkalinity. Recognized by palpation or auscultation in the left flank. Called also ruminal stasis.
collapse of ruminal function, e.g. resulting from complete anorexia, severe toxemia for several days; complete atony, shrunken, collapsed rumen, little content other than fluid.
calves fed milk or milk replacer in which reticular groove closure is incomplete so that much milk leaks into the rumen where it ferments causing a disabling indigestion.
dry matter capacity; the limitation on intake of the animal.
see rumen flora.
ruminal flora reconstitution
see cud transfer.
foul smelling ruminal contents
putrefaction of ruminal contents, especially protein, in an atonic and defaunated rumen.
occurs in calves nutritionally deficient in vitamin A.
rumen cycles occur almost continuously, at least faster than the normal high level of two cycles per minute. See vagus indigestion.
dense packing of rumen with indigestible roughage, accompanied by ruminal hypomotility. Dietary error causing slight increase in ruminal acidity or alkalinity. Called also indigestion.
the clinical syndrome associated with ruminal atony. Includes low food intake, rumen atony, reduced fecal output.
infection of the rumen wall by Fusobacterium necrophorum, usually secondarily to rumenitis after carbohydrate engorgement. Commonly a precursor of liver necrobacillosis.
significant lesion in ruminants fed high concentrate rations; characterized by black, club- or tongue-like papillae which tend to stick together in clumps.
the normal pH of 7.0 can fall as low as 5.5 to 6.5 in moderate acidosis caused by carbohydrate engorgement, 5 to 6 in acute engorgement, and 4 to 5 in the peracute disease.
ruminal protozoa absent
partial rotation about the long anteroposterior axis has caused chronic tympany.
the sounds which accompany normal ruminal movements in normal cows and are audible over the left upper flank. The sounds referable to the first movement in the cycle resembles water gurgling over a gravel bed, the second sound has a booming quality like distant thunder.
ruminal squamous-cell carcinoma
rarely occurs in the rumen and may obstruct the esophageal cardia causing chronic ruminal tympany.
complete absence of ruminal movement indicated by no audible sounds and no palpable ruminal movements during a 2 minute auscultation.
distention of the rumen with gas. In cattle affected by eating too much wet legume—so-called clover bloat—the gas may be mixed with fluid phase to cause stable froth and the animal is unable to eructate and dies of asphyxia. Free gas bloat is due to physical obstruction of the esophagus by a foreign body, or by pressure from outside, or failure of the esophageal groove reflex, or acute atony of ruminal musculature as in anaphylaxis. Called also bloat.
an uncommon lesion due usually to bacterial or fungal infection of a primary erosive lesion or chemical rumenitis; clinically inapparent unless leakage or rupture causes peritonitis.
ruminal villous atrophy
encountered in weanling ruminants on low fiber diets, e.g. pelleted feed. Causes no apparent impairment of digestion.
motile fungal bodies, chemotactically attracted to soluble carbohydrate and may represent 8% of the total ruminal biomass in animals on high fiber diets. Their role in digestion is unsure but they do form rhizoids which penetrate plant tissue.