rotavirus vaccine, live, oral

rotavirus vaccine, live, oral

(ro-ta-vye-russ vak-seen) ,

Rotarix

(trade name),

Rotateq

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: vaccines immunizing agents
Pharmacologic: active immunizer
Pregnancy Category: C

Indications

Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants.

Action

Live attenuated vaccine replicates in the small intestine and produces immunity.

Therapeutic effects

Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis and its sequelae.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: Unknown.
Distribution: Remains in GI tract.
Metabolism and Excretion: Excreted in feces.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
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Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; History of intussusception; Severe combined immunodeficiency disease.
Use Cautiously in: Acute diarrhea or vomiting (delay immunization); Chronic gastrointestinal disorders (safety and efficacy not established); Febrile illness; Immunosuppression due to disease (including HIV), concurrent immunosuppressive drug therapy, malignant neoplasms affecting bone marrow/lymphatic system, or receipt of blood transfusion or blood products (including immunoglobulins) (safety and effectiveness not established).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Respiratory

  • cough

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • runny nose

Gastrointestinal

  • Intussusception (life-threatening)
  • flatulence
  • loss of appetite
  • rotavirus shedding in stool
  • vomiting

Miscellaneous

  • fussiness/irritability

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Concurrent immunosuppressants, antineoplastics, corticosteroids or radiation therapy may ↓ antibody response and ↑ risk of adverse reactions.

Route/Dosage

Rotarix

Oral (Infants 6–24 wk) 2 dose series; first dose at 6 weeks of age, followed at least 4 weeks later with a second dose; series should be completed by 24 weeks of age.

Rotateq

Oral (Infants 6–32wk) 3 dose series; first dose at 6–12 weeks of age, followed by the 2nd and 3rd doses at 4–10 week intervals; series should be completed by 32 weeks of age.

Availability

Powder for oral suspension (Rotarix) (requires reconstitution): 1 mL prefilled oral applicator (applicator contains latex)
Oral solution (Rotateq): 2 mL prefilled dosing tube

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Determine current health status and previous vaccination history of infant, including any reactions to previous dose of rotavirus vaccine. Delay administration in infants with acute diarrhea and vomiting.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for infection (Indications)

Implementation

  • May be administered with food or liquid, including breast milk, either before or after vaccination.
  • Oral: For Rotarix: Remove vial cap and push transfer adaptor into vial. Shake diluent in oral applicator (white, turbid suspension); push plunger of oral applicator to transfer diluent into vial. Reconstitute only with accompanying diluent. Do not mix with other vaccines or solutions. Do not administer if vial has cracks. Withdraw vaccine in oral applicator and twist to remove oral applicator. Do not use a needle; not for injection Vials of vaccine may be stored in the refrigerator and diluent may be stored at room temperature. Do not freeze. Administer within 24 hr of reconstitution. Discard in biological waste container if not used within 24 hrs.
    • If infant spits out or regurgitates most of dose, single replacement dose may be considered at same vaccination visit.
  • For RotaTeq: Open the dosing tube and puncture dispensing tip by screwing cap clockwise until it becomes tight. Administer dose by gently squeezing liquid into infant's mouth toward the inner cheek until dosing tube is empty. A residual drop may remain in the tip of the tube.
    • If infant spits out or regurgitates most of dose, a replacement dose is not recommended. The infant should continue to receive any remaining doses in the recommended series.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct parents or guardians to read Patient Information before first dose and prior to second dose and ask any questions they may have during the visit. Provide parent or guardian with the Vaccine Information Statements available at www.cdc.gov/nip. Emphasize the importance of completing the immunization series.
  • Advise parent to contact health care professional immediately if signs of intussusception (vomiting, diarrhea, severe stomach pain, severe crying, blood in the stool, or change in bowel movements) occur even if it has been several months since last vaccine dose.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis and its sequelae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent (RotaTeq(R), Merck & Co.
July 15 /PRNewswire/ -- Wyeth Lederle Vaccines, the vaccine division of American Home Products Corporation (NYSE: AHP), is announcing a number of steps to address questions raised by reports of intussusception (a cause of bowel obstruction in which one segment of bowel becomes enfolded within another segment) in 20 infants immunized with RRV-TV (RotaShield(R) Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Tetravalent) during the period between September 1, 1998 and July 7, 1999.
May 27 /PRNewswire/ -- American Home Products Corporation (NYSE: AHP) and its Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories Division announced today that the European Commission has issued marketing authorization for RotaShield(R) Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Tetravalent, the first vaccine for use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis, the most common viral cause of severe and sometimes fatal diarrhea in children.
9714301 Patient Information RotaTeq(R)** (pronounced "RO-tuh-tek") rotavirus vaccine, live, oral, pentavalent You should read this information before your child receives the RotaTeq vaccine and ask your child's doctor any questions you may have.
Food and Drug Administration today announced that it has granted licensure to RotaShield(R) Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Tetravalent, the first vaccine for use in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis, the most common cause of severe and sometimes fatal diarrhea in children.