observed: first, exclusion of aluminum from the root apex
, not allowing
The root apex
is the site of Al toxicity (Ryan et al.
If the fenestration is present at apical level in a tooth having peri radicular pathology, the protruding root apex
is re-contoured, the root is cleaned, and root end is filled to allow alveolar bone regeneration which seems to be a common practise.
At the end of growing period 48-day, five nodal root segments from each soil core (roots in the surface of column were excluded) were cut at 20 mm from the root apex
BH] appear to confer AL tolerance by the same mechanism, namely excluding AL from the root apex
, as indicated by hematoxylin staining (Riede and Anderson, 1996).
In the former species the root apex
is shown to arise immediately below the developing epidermal layer, and in the latter the root apical cell is reported to form following a series of divisions of a truly superficial cell (this lacks photographic documentation, however).
In severe hypercementosis, the authors found obliteration of root apex
which limited the working length.
A periapical radiographic view revealed a separated instrument fragment in apical third of the MB root extruding beyond the radiographic termination of the root apex
with associated periapical radiolucency around the MB root apex
Most canals do not communicate with periodontal tissue precisely at the root apex
, and the apical foramen often does not have a round shape.
A K-file with silicone stop was introduced into the root canal until the tip was visible at the most coronal limit of root apex
Central to it is achieving a straight line access to root apex
and meticulous debridement/disinfection/ shaping of the canal prior to root filling.
Radiographically there was a radiolucency surrounding the root apex
of the offending tooth.