The preponderance of recent research documenting the negative association between masculinity constructs and well-being is grounded in the gender role strain
paradigm (Levant, 2011; Wong et al.
Some subscales appear to act as risk factors, as predicted by the Gender Role Strain
Paradigm (GRSP), and others as protective buffers, as predicted by positive masculinity and social norms theories.
variables examined within the work-family conflict literature include intra-role conflict, role overload, role ambiguity, and parental demands (Boyar, Maertz, Mosley, & Carr, 2008; Carlson & Kacmar, 2000; Chiu, 1998; Kopelman et al.
This study identified that practice teachers experience role strain
(White and Kudless 2008), and lack a clear professional identity.
To identify characteristics essential to the clinical faculty role and the areas of role strain
experienced by clinical faculty.
Thus, high levels of parenting stress, or role strain
, may have a negative influence on fathers' health.
4) Role Strain
is 21-item rated on a 5-point scale ranging from "never true" (1) to "very often true" (5) (Dov, 1982).
One factor relates to increased exposure to stress due to role strain
The family must frequently cope with constant relationship strain and evolving role strain
Work-family literature has yielded two competing viewpoints: (1) work-family conflict, drawn from role strain
theory and (2) work-family enrichment, drawn from role accumulation theory.
The theoretical underpinning for work-family conflict is role strain
Hebert and associates (2000) further tested these models and reported a first-order two-factor model with 12 items representing personal strain (three items) and role strain