risk taking, proactiveness, and innovativeness), degree of role ambiguity
in their job, and their strength of intention to quit.
defined role conflict as the existence of competing and inconsistent expectations that are associated with a particular role and role ambiguity
as not having clear and consistent information about the responsibilities of a role.
Subsets of variables such as experience, autonomy, role ambiguity
, and job performance have been studied, but there have been few studies integrating the variables into comprehensive models, and even fewer that have done so in a public accounting setting.
Use of information and communications technologies (ICT), such as cell phones, voice mail, e-mail, and instant messaging, can challenge employees by creating a range of stressors, including overload, role ambiguity
, and job insecurity (Fenner & Renn, 2010; Grant, Wallace, & Spurgeon, 2013; Knani, 2013).
Role demands subsume role conflict and role ambiguity
Those included Role Ambiguity
, Role Conflict, Role Overload, Job Insecurity, Work Family Conflict and situational constraints.
As the number of roles increases, a trainee might experience role ambiguity
and potential role conflict.
refers to a lack of specificity and predictability for role functions and responsibility (Kahn et al.
is the uncertainty regarding others' expectations for an employee's performance, the actions needed to meet those expectations and the overall consequences of one's job behaviour (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964).
From an array of factors such as a nurse's coping skills, social supports, job satisfaction, self-conception and pride, philosophy and life experiences, as well as external stressors like the physical environment, change, role ambiguity
and resource shortages: the potential for a perfect storm is stirring.
Perhaps there has been an influx of new positions at the organization with role ambiguity
or role nausea.
Keywords: Role demand, Role overload, Role conflict, Role ambiguity
, Work-family conflict, Motivation