robertsonian translocation


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to robertsonian translocation: mosaicism

translocation

 [trans″lo-ka´shun]
the attachment of a fragment of one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Translocation of a portion of one chromosome to another chromosome. Redrawn from Damjanov, 2000.
reciprocal translocation the mutual exchange of fragments between two broken chromosomes, one part of one uniting with part of the other.
robertsonian translocation that in which the breaks occur at the centromeres and entire chromosome arms are exchanged, usually involving two acrocentric chromosomes.

ro·bert·so·ni·an trans·lo·ca·tion

translocation in which the centromeres of two acrocentric chromosomes appear to have fused, forming an abnormal chromosome consisting of the long arms of two different chromosomes with loss of the short arms. A carrier of a balanced robertsonian translocation has only 45 chromosomes but near normal chromosomal complement and a clinically normal phenotype; however, he or she is at risk of having a child with unbalanced chromosomal complement. A person with an unbalanced robertsonian translocation is trisomic for the long arm of the chromosome.
Synonym(s): centric fusion
[W.R.B. Robertson, U.S. geneticist.]

robertsonian translocation

[rob′ərtsō′nē·ən]
the exchange of entire chromosome arms, with the break occurring at the centromere, usually between two nonhomologous acrocentric chromosomes. It produces one large, metacentric chromosome and one extremely small chromosome. The latter carries little genetic material and may be lost through successive cell divisions, leading to a reduction in total chromosome number. Compare balanced translocation, reciprocal translocation.
enlarge picture
Robertsonian translocation

ro·bert·so·ni·an trans·lo·ca·tion

(rob'ĕrt-sō'nē-ăn tranz'lō-kā'shŭn)
Translocation in which the centromeres of two acrocentric chromosomes appear to have fused, forming an abnormal chromosome consisting of the long arms of two different chromosomes; if the translocation is balanced, the individual is clinically normal but a carrier of the translocation; if the translocation is unbalanced, the individual is trisomic for the long arm of a chromosome.
Synonym(s): centric fusion.
[W.R.B. Robertson, U.S. geneticist.]

Robertson,

W.R.B., U.S. geneticist, 1881–.
robertsonian translocation - translocation in which the centromeres of two acrocentric chromosomes appear to have fused, forming an abnormal chromosome. Synonym(s): centric fusion

Robertsonian translocation

see Robertsonian translocation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Uniparental disomy resulting from heterozygous Robertsonian translocation (13q14q) in both parents.
Furthermore, as presented above, consanguineous marriages within families that carry familial translocations can result in formation of homozygotes for Robertsonian translocations.
Pregnancy outcome in carriers of Robertsonian translocations.
Genetic counseling in Robertsonian translocations der (13;14): frequencies of reproductive outcomes and infertility in 101 pedigrees.
Nonhomologous Robertsonian translocations (NHRTs) and uniparental disomy (UPD) risk: an Italian multicentric prenatal survey.
Homozygous Robertsonian translocations in a fetus with 44 chromosomes.
Case Report: Potential speciation in humans involving robertsonian translocations.
To our knowledge, all published papers for couples which are carriers of silent Robertsonian translocation involving homologous chromosomes 21q; 21q have reported 100% risk of having a child with Down syndrome and unable to have healthy baby (13).
Reproductive risk of the silent carrier of Robertsonian translocation.
Recurrent abortions and Down syndrome resulting from Robertsonian translocation 21q; 21q.
Gamete segregation in female carriers of Robertsonian translocations.
Robertsonian translocations (RTs) are recognized to be the most common structural chromosomal abnormalities in the population with an incidence of 1.