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Blindness may be caused by diseases of the lens, retina, or other eye structures; diseases of the optic nerve; or lesions of the visual cortex or pathways of the brain. A small number of infants are born blind, but far more people become blind during life. In the U.S., blindness due to infection is rare, but worldwide diseases like trachoma and onchocerciasis are relatively common causes of severe visual impairment. In malnourished people, vitamin A deficiency is an important cause of blindness.
A variety of free services are available for the blind and physically handicapped. Talking Books Topics, published bimonthly in large-print, cassette, and disc formats, is distributed free to the blind and physically handicapped who participate in the Library of Congress free reading program. It lists recorded books and magazines available through a national network of cooperating libraries and provides news of developments and activities in library services. Subscription requests may be sent to Talking Books Topics, CMLS, P.O. Box 9150, Melbourne, FL 32902-9150.
amnesic color blindness
night blindnessNyctalopia (1).
red-green blindnessRed-green color blindness
red-green color blindness
river blindnessSee: onchocerciasis
solar blindnessEclipse blindness.
transient monocular blindness
In older adults, causes of carotid atherosclerosis include smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia. When atherosclerotic plaques form within the carotid artery, they may ulcerate. The exposed endothelium within the artery becomes a focus of inflammation and blood clotting. Blindness occurs when tiny clots from the carotid arteries embolize to the ophthalmic arteries.
Patients often describe a dark shade descending into the field of vision. At the same time they may have other stroke symptoms, e.g., difficulty with speech or weakness of the hand on the side opposite the affected eye.
A patient who may have carotid atherosclerosis should begin taking aspirin or other antiplatelet drugs if these are tolerated. Blood pressure and lipid levels should be controlled. The patient should be referred for noninvasive evaluation of blood flow through the carotid arteries, e.g., ultrasonography. If the carotid arteries are significantly blocked, the patient and physician should consider the risks and benefits of carotid endarterectomy.