77) Lucius displays various emotions before and after the Risus
festival: daring (2,32,4-5); anguish and bewilderment (3,1); wretchedness and boldness (3,4); sorrow and indignity (3,7); gloom and dumbfoundedness (3,9); downheartedness, fear, and misery (3,10); fear and embarrassment (3,12); curiosity and eagerness (3,14); lust (3,20,3-4); amazement (3.
10) See Schotto (1612, 527-28), "Sardonicus Risus
, id est simulatus" glossing Odyssey 20.
4, which typically end with an unsuccessful robbery and the gory death of the robbers' leader, and which underlie, Kirichenko argues, also the Risus
festival scenario and Tlepolemus' rescue of Charite.
Last, and most rarely, some entries put the chosen text into a theoretical framework such as when Peter Cramer applies Bakhtin's concept of carnival to tease out the risus
paschalis, the Easter laughter, which makes itself felt in the solemn exorcism ritual performed over baptismal candidates on Holy Saturday, as it is described in the eleventh-century Metz Pontifical (11 ).
First, we are reminded of his being a constant source of amusement by his antics, leaping through hills and streams, "imitating by his high-pitched bark the singing of children" ("arguta pueros imitatur voce canentes," 64), and in general doing everything he can to make one smile ("et risus
motura facit," 65).
17: "Ideoque cum Plautus seu iocosior sit, sive fabulosior, Terentius tamen astutior, qui risus
etiam in cautelarum admirationem permutet, ad maiorem scilicet prudentiam, rerum discretionem accomodans.
Perhaps Shakespeare's version of the Gothic romance's risus
sardonicus in Macbeth says it most clearly: "There's daggers in men's smiles.
Ut elementum, mauris et convallis egestas, magna risus
, eu condimentum tellus arcu ac risus
Curioso e poi l'andamento della dimostrazione che parte dall'assunto che in Apuleio "il risus
e il cachinnus, non esenti da un certo sadismo" servano principalmente "a ridicolizzare i personaggi" secondari e quello principale--in contraddizione almeno apparente con quanto affermato nel primo saggio--e che l'accentuazione del pathos e della serieta sia uno dei mezzi con cui Apuleio tenta di cambiare il senso del racconto del suo modello greco.
35) Erasmus would censure immoderate laughter in his comment on the adage risus
syncreusus or "shaking with laughter" as "highly unsuitable for a man of character because it is clearly the expression of a mind which has lost control.
Plaza 2003 for a comparison between the ending of this satire and the Risus
Festival in Apuleius' Met.
At other times he offers misplaced loyalty to an uncaring and unprotective host (Milo at the Risus