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rheumatoid factor

   Also found in: Dictionary/thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia 0.03 sec.
factor /fac·tor/ (fak´ter) an agent or element that contributes to the production of a result.
accelerator factor  coagulation f. V.
angiogenesis factor  a substance that causes the growth of new blood vessels, found in tissues with high metabolic requirements and also released by macrophages to initiate revascularization in wound healing.
antihemophilic factor  (AHF)
2. a preparation of factor VIII used for the prevention or treatment of hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia A and the treatment of von Willebrand disease, hypofibrinogenemia, and factor XIII deficiency, including preparations derived from human or porcine plasma or by recombinant technology.
antihemophilic factor A  coagulation f. VIII.
antihemophilic factor B  coagulation f. IX.
antihemophilic factor C  coagulation f. XI.
antinuclear factor  (ANF) see under antibody.
factor B  a complement component that participates in the alternative complement pathway.
B cell differentiation factors  (BCDF) factors derived from T cells that stimulate B cells to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells.
B lymphocyte stimulatory factors  (BSF) a system of nomenclature for factors that stimulate B cells, replacing individual factor names with the designation BSF and an appended descriptive code.
Christmas factor  coagulation f. IX.
C3 nephritic factor  (C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase, preventing its inactivation by factor H and resulting in complete consumption of plasma C3; it is found in the serum of many patients with type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
coagulation factors  substances in the blood that are essential to the clotting process and hence, to the maintenance of normal hemostasis. They are designated by Roman numerals, to which the notation “a” is added to indicate the activated state. See also platelet f's .
factor I fibrinogen: a high-molecular-weight plasma protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin. Deficiency results in afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia.
factor II prothrombin: a plasma protein converted to thrombin by activated factor X in the common pathway of coagulation. Deficiency leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
factor III tissue thromboplastin: a lipoprotein functioning in the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, activating factor X.
factor IV calcium.
factor V proaccelerin: a factor functioning in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation, catalyzing the cleavage of prothrombin to thrombin. Deficiency leads to parahemophilia.
factor VII proconvertin: a factor functioning in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, acting with factor III to activate factor X. Deficiency, either hereditary or associated with vitamin K deficiency, leads to hemorrhagic tendency.
factor VIII antihemophilic factor (AHF): a storage-labile factor participating in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, acting as a cofactor in the activation of factor X. Deficiency, an X-linked recessive trait, causes hemophilia A.
factor IX a relatively storage-stable substance involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, activating factor X. Deficiency results in the hemorrhagic syndrome hemophilia B, resembling hemophilia A; it is treated with purified preparations of the factor, either from human plasma or recombinant, or with factor IX complex.
factor X Stuart factor: a storage-stable factor that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation, uniting them to begin the common pathway of coagulation; as part of the prothrombinase complex, activated factor X activates prothrombin. Deficiency may cause a systemic coagulation disorder. The activated form is called also thrombokinase.
factor XI plasma thromboplastin antecedent: a stable factor involved in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, activating factor IX. Deficiency results in the blood-clotting defect hemophilia C.
factor XII Hageman factor: a stable factor activated by contact with glass or other foreign surfaces, which initiates the intrinsic process of blood coagulation by activating factor XI.
factor XIII fibrin-stabilizing factor: a factor that polymerizes fibrin monomers, enabling formation of a firm blood clot. Deficiency produces a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.
colony-stimulating factors  a group of glycoprotein lymphokines, produced by blood monocytes, tissue macrophages, and stimulated lymphocytes and required for the differentiation of stem cells into granulocyte and monocyte cell colonies; they stimulate the production of granulocytes and macrophages and have been used experimentally as cancer agents.
factor D  a serine protease of the alternative complement pathway that cleaves factor B bound to C3b, releasing Ba while leaving Bb bound to C3b to form the C3 convertase C3bBb.
decay accelerating factor  (DAF) a protein of most blood cells as well as endothelial and epithelial cells, CD55; it protects the cell membranes from attack by autologous complement.
endothelial-derived relaxant factor , endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) nitric oxide.
extrinsic factor  cyanocobalamin.
F (fertility) factor  F plasmid.
fibrin-stabilizing factor  (FSF) coagulation f. XIII.
Fitzgerald factor  high-molecular-weight kininogen.
Fletcher factor  prekallikrein.
glucose tolerance factor  a biologically active complex of chromium and nicotinic acid that facilitates the reaction of insulin with receptor sites on tissues.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor  (G-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that stimulates the production of neutrophils from precursor cells.
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor  (GM-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that binds to stem cells and most myelocytes and stimulates their differentiation into granulocytes and macrophages.
growth factor  any substance that promotes skeletal or somatic growth, usually a mineral, hormone, or vitamin.
factor H  a glycoprotein that acts as an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement activation.
Hageman factor  (HF) coagulation f. XII.
histamine-releasing factor  (HRF) a lymphokine that induces the release of histamine by IgE-bound basophils in late phase allergic reaction.
homologous restriction factor  (HRF) a regulatory protein that binds to the membrane attack complex in autologous cells, inhibiting the final stages of complement activation.
factor I  a plasma enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation by inactivating their C3 convertases.
inhibiting factors  factors elaborated by one body structure that inhibit release of hormones by another structure; applied to substances of unknown chemical structure, while those of established chemical identity are called inhibiting hormones.
insulinlike growth factors  (IGF) insulin-like substances in serum that do not react with insulin antibodies; they are growth hormone–dependent and possess all the growth-promoting properties of the somatomedins.
intrinsic factor  a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. Lack of intrinsic factor, with consequent deficiency of vitamin B12, results in pernicious anemia.
LE factor  an antinuclear antibody having a sedimentation rate of 7S and reacting with leukocyte nuclei, found in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus.
leukocyte inhibitory factor  (LIF) a lymphokine that prevents polymorphonuclear leukocytes from migrating.
lymph node permeability factor  (LNPF) a substance from normal lymph nodes which produces vascular permeability.
lymphocyte mitogenic factor  (LMF) a nondialyzable heat-stable macromolecule released by lymphocytes stimulated by a specific antigen; it causes blast transformation and cell division in normal lymphocytes.
lymphocyte transforming factor  (LTF) a lymphokine causing transformation and clonal expansion of nonsensitized lymphocytes.
myocardial depressant factor  (MDF) a peptide formed in response to a fall in systemic blood pressure; it has a negatively inotropic effect on myocardial muscle fibers.
osteoclast activating factor  (OAF) a lymphokine produced by lymphocytes which facilitates bone resorption.
factor P  properdin.
platelet factors  factors important in hemostasis which are contained in or attached to the platelets.
platelet factor 1 adsorbed coagulation factor V from the plasma.
platelet factor 2 an accelerator of the thrombin-fibrinogen reaction.
platelet factor 3 a lipoprotein with roles in the activation of both coagulation factor X and prothrombin.
platelet factor 4 an intracellular protein component of blood platelets capable of inhibiting the activity of heparin.
platelet activating factor  (PAF) an immunologically produced substance which is a mediator of clumping and degranulation of blood platelets and of bronchoconstriction.
platelet-derived growth factor  a substance contained in the alpha granules of blood platelets whose action contributes to the repair of damaged blood vessel walls.
R factor  see under plasmid.
releasing factors  factors elaborated in one body structure that cause release of hormones from another structure; applied to substances of unknown chemical structure, while those of established chemical identity are called releasing hormones.
resistance transfer factor  (RTF) the portion of an R plasmid containing the genes for conjugation and replication.
Rh factor , Rhesus factor genetically determined antigens present on the surface of erythrocytes; incompatibility for these antigens between mother and offspring is responsible for erythroblastosis fetalis.
rheumatoid factor  (RF) a protein (IgM) detectable by serological tests, which is found in the serum of most patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in other related and unrelated diseases and sometimes in apparently normal persons.
risk factor  a clearly defined occurrence or characteristic that has been associated with the increased rate of a subsequently occurring disease.
Stuart factor , Stuart-Prower factor coagulation f. X.
tissue factor  coagulation f. III.
transforming growth factor  (TGF) any of several proteins secreted by transformed cells and causing growth of normal cells, although not causing transformation.
tumor necrosis factor  either of two lymphokines that cause hemorrhagic necrosis of certain tumor cells but do not affect normal cells; they have been used as experimental anticancer agents. Tumor necrosis factor α (formerly cachectin ) is produced by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells. Tumor necrosis factor β, is lymphotoxin.
vascular endothelial growth factor  (VEGF), vascular permeability factor (VPF) a peptide factor that is a mitogen of vascularendothelial cells; it promotes tissue vascularization and is important in tumor angiogenesis.
von Willebrand's factor  (vWF) a glycoprotein that circulates complexed to coagulation factor VIII, mediating adhesion of platelets to damaged epithelial surfaces. Deficiency results in von Willebrand's disease.

rheumatoid factor
n. Abbr. RF
Any of the immunoglobulins found in the serum of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis that enhance the agglutination of suspended particles that are coated with pooled human gamma globulin and that are used to diagnose the disease.

Rheumatoid factor
A series of antibodies that signal the presence of rheumatoid arthritis. May also be present in Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others.
Mentioned in: Psoriatic Arthritis

rheumatoid factor (RF),
antiglobulin antibodies often found in the serum of patients with a clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid factors are present in about 70% of such cases, but they may also be found in such widely divergent diseases as tuberculosis, parasitic infections, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. See also latex fixation test.

factor [fak´ter]
an agent or element that contributes to the production of a result.
accelerator factor factor V, one of the coagulation factors.
factor I see coagulation factors.
factor II see coagulation factors.
factor III see coagulation factors.
factor IV see coagulation factors.
factor V see coagulation factors.
factor VI see coagulation factors.
factor VII see coagulation factors.
factor VIII see coagulation factors.
factor IX see coagulation factors.
factor X see coagulation factors.
factor XI see coagulation factors.
factor XII see coagulation factors.
factor XIII see coagulation factors.
angiogenesis factor a substance that causes the growth of new blood vessels, found in tissues with high metabolic requirements such as cancers and the retina. It is also released by hypoxic macrophages at the edges or outer surface of a wound and initiates revascularization in wound healing.
antihemophilic factor (AHF)
2. a preparation of factor VIII administered intravenously for the prevention or treatment of hemorrhage in patients with hemophilia A and the treatment of von Willebrand disease, hypofibrinogenemia, and coagulation factor XIII deficiency. Included are preparations derived from human plasma (antihemophilic factor, cryoprecipitated antihemophilic factor) or porcine plasma (antihemophilic factor [porcine]) and those produced by recombinant technology antihemophilic factor [recombinant]).
antihemophilic factor A factor VIII, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic factor B factor IX, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemophilic factor C factor XI, one of the coagulation factors.
antihemorrhagic factor vitamin K.
antinuclear factor (ANF) antinuclear antibody.
antirachitic factor vitamin D.
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) a hormone produced in the cardiac atrium; an inhibitor of renin secretion and thus of the production of angiotensin, and a stimulator of aldosterone release. Its effect is increased excretion of water and sodium and a lowering of blood pressure.
factor B a complement component that participates in the alternative complement pathway.
blastogenic factor lymphocyte-transforming factor.
carative f's in the theory of human caring, a set of ten factors that offer a descriptive topology of interventions including (1) a humanistic-altruistic system of values; (2) faith-hope; (3) sensitivity to self and others; (4) a helping-trusting, human care relationship; (5) the expression of positive and negative feelings; (6) a creative problem-solving caring process; (7) transpersonal teaching and learning; (8) a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual environment; (9) human needs assistance; and (10) existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces.
Christmas factor factor IX, one of the coagulation factors.
citrovorum factor folinic acid.
clotting f's coagulation factors.
C3 nephritic factor (C3 NeF) an autoantibody that stabilizes the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase, preventing its inactivation by factor h, resulting in complete consumption of plasma C3; it is found in the serum of many patients with type II membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
coagulation f's see coagulation factors.
colony-stimulating factor (CSF) any of a number of glycoproteins responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hematopoietic progenitor cells; specific factors are named for the cell lines that they stimulate. Used to promote bone marrow proliferation in aplastic anemia, following cytotoxic chemotherapy, or following bone marrow transplantation. Types include granulocyte, granulocyte-macrophage, and macrophage colony-stimulating factors.
factor D a factor that when activated serves as a serine esterase in the alternative complement pathway.
decay accelerating factor (DAF) a protein of most blood as well as endothelial and epithelial cells, CD55 (see CD antigen); it protects the cell membranes from attack by autologous complement.
endothelial-derived relaxant factor (endothelial-derived relaxing factor) (endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)) nitric oxide.
extrinsic factor cyanocobalamin.
F factor (fertility factor) F plasmid.
fibrin-stabilizing factor (FSF) factor XIII, one of the coagulation factors.
Fletcher factor prekallikrein.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that stimulates production of neutrophils from precursor cells.
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor that binds to stem cells and most myelocytes and stimulates their differentiation into granulocytes and macrophages.
growth factor any substance that promotes skeletal or somatic growth; usually a mineral, hormone, or vitamin.
factor H a complement system regulatory protein that inhibits the alternative pathway of complement activation.
Hageman factor (HF) factor XII, one of the coagulation factors. See illustration.
Activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) leads to increased vascular permeability, clotting, and thrombolysis. From Damjanov, 2000.
hematopoietic growth f's a group of substances with the ability to support hematopoietic colony formation in vitro, including erythropoietin, interleukin-3, and colony-stimulating factors. All except erythropoietin stimulate mature cells, have overlapping capabilities to affect progenitor cells of several blood cell lines, and also affect cells outside the hematopoietic system.
histamine-releasing factor (HRF) a lymphokine, believed to be produced by macrophages and B lymphocytes, that induces the release of histamine by IgE-bound basophils. It occurs in late phase allergic reaction, six or more hours after contact with the antigen, in sensitive individuals.
homologous restriction factor (HRF) a regulatory protein that binds to the membrane attack complex in autologous cells, inhibiting the final stages of complement activation.
factor I a plasma enzyme that regulates both classical and alternative pathways of complement activation by inactivating their C3 convertases.
immunoglobulin-binding factor (IBF) a lymphokine having the ability to bind IgG complexed with antigen and prevent complement activation.
insulinlike growth f's (IGF) insulinlike substances in serum that do not react with insulin antibodies; they are growth hormone–dependent and possess all the growth-promoting properties of the somatomedins.
intensification factor in radiology, the comparative increase in light transmission when films are exposed in the presence of intensifying screens compared to that in the absence of screens.
intrinsic factor a glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric glands, necessary for the absorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12). Its absence results in pernicious anemia.
LE factor an immunoglobulin that reacts with leukocyte nuclei, found in the serum in systemic lupus erythematosus.
lymph node permeability factor (LNPF) a substance from normal lymph nodes that produces vascular permeability.
lymphocyte mitogenic factor (LMF) (lymphocyte-transforming factor) a substance that is released by lymphocytes stimulated by specific antigen and causes nonstimulated lymphocytes to undergo blast transformation and cell division; called also blastogenic factor.
macrophage-activating factor (MAF) interferon-α.
macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) a colony-stimulating factor secreted by macrophages, stimulated endothelial cells, and most tissues, that stimulates the production of macrophages from precursor cells and maintains the viability of mature macrophages in vitro.
macrophage chemotactic factor (MCF) a lymphokine that attracts macrophages to the invasion site.
macrophage-derived growth factor a substance released by macrophages below the surface of a wound that induces the proliferation of fibroblasts.
macrophage inhibition factor (macrophage inhibitory factor) migration inhibitory factor.
migration inhibition factor (migration inhibitory factor) a lymphokine that inhibits macrophage migration.
minification factor in radiology, the gain in light achieved by a reduction in size of the output phosphor from the input phosphor size.
osteoclast-activating factor (OAF) a lymphokine that stimulates bone resorption; it may be involved in the bone resorption associated with multiple myeloma and other hematologic neoplasms or inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease.
factor P properdin.
platelet f's see platelet factors.
platelet-activating factor (PAF) a substance released by basophils and mast cells in immediate hypersensitivity reactions, and by macrophages and neutrophils in other inflammatory reactions; it leads to bronchoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and release of vasoactive substances from platelets.
platelet-derived growth factor a substance contained in platelets and capable of inducing proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells; its action contributes to the repair of damaged vascular walls.
R factor R plasmid.
releasing f's factors elaborated in one structure (as in the hypothalamus) that effect the release of hormones from another structure (as from the anterior pituitary gland), including corticotropin-releasing factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone–releasing factor, and prolactin-releasing factor. Applied to substances of unknown chemical structure, while substances of established chemical identity are called releasing hormones.
resistance factor R f.
Rh factor a type of agglutinogen found on some erythrocytes; see also rh factor.
rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies directed against antigenic determinants on IgG molecules, found in the serum of about 80 per cent of patients with classic or definite rheumatoid arthritis; but in only about 20 per cent of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; rheumatoid factors may be IgM, IgG, or IgA antibodies, although serologic tests measure only IgM. Rheumatoid factors also occur in other connective tissue diseases and infectious diseases.
risk factor an agent or situation that is known to make an individual or population more susceptible to the development of a specific negative condition.
risk factor (omaha) an environmental, psychosocial, or physiologic event or health related behavior that increases the client's exposure or vulnerability to the development of a client problem; the nurse's knowledge base of risk factors is used to identify potential problem modifiers in the Problem Classification scheme of the omaha system.
stable factor factor VII, one of the coagulation factors.
Stuart factor (Stuart-Prower factor) factor X, one of the coagulation factors.
sun protection factor (SPF) a numerical rating of the amount of protection afforded by a sunscreen; the higher the number, the more protection is provided.
tissue factor factor III, one of the coagulation factors.
transfer factor (TF) a factor occurring in sensitized lymphocytes that can transfer delayed hypersensitivity to a formerly nonreactive individual; see also transfer factor.
tumor necrosis factor (TNF) either of two lymphokines produced primarily by cells of the immune system, capable of causing in vivo hemorrhagic necrosis of certain tumor cells but not normal cells. They also destroy cells associated with the inflammatory response. They have been used as experimental anticancer agents but can also induce shock when bacterial endotoxins cause their release. Tumor necrosis factor α, formerly called cachectin, contains 157 amino acids and is produced by macrophages, eosinophils, and NK cells. Tumor necrosis factor β is lymphotoxin and contains 171 amino acids.
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (vascular permeability factor (VPF)) a peptide factor that stimulates the proliferation of cells of the endothelium of blood vessels; it promotes tissue vascularization and is important in blood vessel formation in tumors.
von Willebrand's factor (vWF) a glycoprotein synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that circulates complexed to coagulation factor VIII. It is involved in adhesion of platelets to damaged epithelial surfaces and may participate in platelet aggregation. Deficiency results in the prolonged bleeding time seen in von Willebrand's disease.

rheumatoid factor (RF),
n antiglobulin antibodies often found in the serum of patients with a clinical diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

rheumatoid
resembling rheumatism.

rheumatoid arthritis
see rheumatoid arthritis.
rheumatoid factor
antibodies, particularly IgM but also IgG, that are directed against antigenic determinants on the Fc region of other immunoglobulins. When the immunoglobulin binds to antigen, changes occur in the folding of the protein of the Fc region such that new, 'non-self' antigenic determinants are exposed and it is to these that rheumatoid factors, i.e. other antibodies, are directed.

rheumatoid factor
Rheumatology Any of a group of often polyclonal IgM–rarely also, IgG or IgA antibodies directed against the Fc portion of denatured IgG; RFs are produced by synovial neutrophils in 80% of Pts with rheumatoid arthritis. See Jones criteria, Rheumatoid arthritis.

rheumatoid factor; RhF specific globular plasma protein; occurs in 65-80% of cases with rheumatoid disease (i.e. patient is sero-positive [RhF+ve])

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These panels might combine, for example, rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein.
Rheumatoid factor (RF), which is currently used in the diagnosis of RA, represents one of the classification criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR).
 
 
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