review of systems


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review of systems (ROS)

[rivyo̅o̅′]
Etymology: Fr, revoir, to see again
(in a health history) a system-by-system review of the body functions. The ROS is begun during the initial interview with the patient and completed during the physical examination, as physical findings prompt further questions. Questions about family or personal history are included in each section. One outline of the systems and some of the signs and symptoms that might be noted or reported are as follows:
skin bruising, discoloration, pruritus, birthmarks, moles, ulcers, decubiti, changes in the hair or nails, sun exposure and protection.
hematopoietic spontaneous or excessive bleeding, fatigue, enlarged or tender lymph nodes, pallor, history of anemia.
head and face pain, traumatic injury, ptosis.
ears tinnitus, change in hearing, running or discharge from the ears, deafness, dizziness.
eyes change in vision, pain, inflammation, infections, double vision, scotomata, blurring, tearing.
mouth and throat dental problems, hoarseness, dysphagia, bleeding gums, sore throat, ulcers or sores in the mouth.
nose and sinuses discharge, epistaxis, sinus pain, obstruction.
breasts pain, change in contour or skin color, lumps, discharge from the nipple.
respiratory tract cough, sputum, change in sputum, night sweats, nocturnal dyspnea, wheezing.
cardiovascular system chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, weakness, intolerance of exercise, varicosities, swelling of extremities, known murmur, hypertension, asystole.
gastrointestinal system nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, quality of appetite, change in appetite, dysphagia, gas, heartburn, melena, change in bowel habits, use of laxatives or other drugs to alter the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
urinary tract dysuria, change in color of urine, change in frequency of urination, pain with urgency, incontinence, edema, retention, nocturia.
genital tract (female) menstrual history, obstetric history, contraceptive use, discharge, pain or discomfort, pruritus, history of venereal disease, sexual history.
genital tract (male) penile discharge, pain or discomfort, pruritus, skin lesions, hematuria, history of venereal disease, sexual history.
skeletal system heat; redness; swelling; limitation of function; deformity; crepitation: pain in a joint or an extremity, the neck, or the back, especially with movement.
nervous system dizziness, tremor, ataxia, difficulty in speaking, change in speech, paresthesia, loss of sensation, seizures, syncope, changes in memory.
endocrine system tremor, palpitations, intolerance of heat or cold, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, diaphoresis, exophthalmos, goiter.
psychological status nervousness, instability, depression, phobia, sexual disturbances, criminal behavior, insomnia, night terrors, mania, memory loss, perseveration, disorientation.

review of systems

Internal medicine An organized and complete examination of a Pt's organ systems as part of the workup when the Pt is first seen by a physician; an ROS is an inventory of body systems obtained by verbal history, with the signs and/or Sx which the Pt is experiencing or had. See Evaluation and management services, Physical examination.

review of systems

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ROS

A series of questions concerning each organ system and region of the body, asked of the patient during history taking and physical examination in order to gain an optimal understanding of the patient's presenting illness and medical history.

A sample ROS follows: General: The examiner should determine any history of fatigue, travel to other climates or countries, recent weight change, chills, fever, and lifestyle change in the patient. How many persons occupy the patient's dwelling? What is the patient's relationship to the persons with whom he or she lives? Is it a happy home? What are the patient's hobbies and outside interests? How does the patient usually exercise? Does the patient have pets? Any history of military service? Any job-related illnesses? Any sexual partners? Any use of injected drugs? Any recent hospitalizations or illnesses?

Skin: Is the patient experiencing any rash, itching, sunburn, change in the size of moles, vesicles, or hair loss?

Head, face, and neck: Does the patient have headaches, migraine, vertigo, stiffness, pain, or swelling? Has there been trauma to this area?

Eyes: Does the patient wear glasses? When were the eyes last examined for visual acuity and glaucoma? Is the patient experiencing pain, diplopia, scotomata, itch, discharge, redness, or infection?

Ears: Does the patient have acute or chronic hearing loss, pain, discharge, tinnitus, or vertigo? Is there a history of failure to adjust to descent from a high altitude?

Nose: Does the patient have any dryness, crust formation, bleeding, pain, discharge, obstruction, malodor, or sneezing? How acute is the patient's sense of smell?

Mouth and teeth: The patient should be asked about any soreness, ulcers, pain, dryness, infection, hoarseness, bleeding gums, swallowing difficulty, bruxism, or temporomandibular syndrome. What is the condition of the patient's teeth (real or false)?

Breasts: Has the patient had any pain, swelling, tenderness, lumps, bleeding from the nipple, infection, or change in the ability of the nipples to become erect? Has plastic surgery been done, and if so, were implants used?

Respiratory: Has the patient had any cough, pain, wheezing, sputum production (including character of sputum), hemoptysis, or exposure to persons with contagious diseases such as tuberculosis? Is there a history of occupational or other exposure to asbestos, silica, chickens, parrots, or a dusty environment? The presence of dyspnea, cyanosis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and pleurisy should be determined. If pulmonary function tests were done, the date or dates should be recorded. The extent and duration of all forms of tobacco use should be determined.

Cardiac: The examiner should determine the following: angina, dyspnea, orthopnea, palpitations, heart murmur, heart failure, myocardial infarction, surgical procedures on coronary arteries or heart valves, history of stress tests or angiography, hypertension, rheumatic fever, cardiac arrhythmias, exercise tolerance, history of athletic participation (including jogging and running) and if these are current activities, the dates of electrocardiograms if they were ever taken.

Vascular:` Has the patient experienced claudication, cold intolerance (esp. of the extremities), frostbite, phlebitis, or ulcers (esp. of the extremities) due to poor blood supply?

Gastrointestinal. The examiner should assess the patient's appetite, history of recent weight gain or loss, and whether the patient has been following a particular diet for gaining or losing weight. Is the patient a vegetarian? Has he or she had any difficulty in swallowing? Anorexia, nausea, vomiting (including the character of the vomitus), diarrhea and its possible explanation (such as foreign travel or food poisoning), belching, constipation, change in bowel habits, melena, hemorrhoids and history of surgery for this condition, use of laxatives or antacids, jaundice, hepatitis, and other liver disease should be determined.

Renal; urinary and genital tract: The examiner should take a history of kidney or bladder stones and date of last occurrence, dysuria, hematuria, pyuria, nocturia, incontinence, urgency, antibiotics used for urinary tract infections, bed-wetting, sexually transmitted diseases, libido, sexual partners, penile or urethral discharge, and frequency of sexual activity.

Women should be questioned regarding any vulval pruritus, vaginal discharge, vaginal malodor, history of menarche, frequency and duration of menstrual periods, amount of flow, type of menstrual protection used, type or types of contraception and douches used, and the total number of pregnancies, abortions, miscarriages, and normal deliveries. The number, sex, age, and health status of living children, and the cause of death of children who died, should be determined. Vaginal, cervical, and uterine infections; pelvic inflammatory disease; tubal ligation; dilation and curettement; hysterectomy; and dyspareunia should be recorded. Any history of the mother's use of diethylstilbestrol while pregnant with the patient should be determined.

Men should be asked about vasectomy, scrotal pain or swelling, and urinary hesitancy or double voiding.

Musculoskeletal: The examiner should ask about muscle twitches, pain, heat, tenderness, swelling, loss of range of motion or strength, cramps, sprains, strains, trauma, fractures, stiffness, back pain, osteoporosis, and character regarding time of day of onset and duration (esp. with respect to the effect of exercise, back pain, and osteoporosis).

Hematological: The examiner should record history of anemia, bleeding, bruising, hemarthrosis, hemophilia, sickle cell disease or trait, recent blood loss, transfusions received, and blood donation. Did the patient receive a transfusion at a time when blood was not being screened for hepatitis or AIDS? Was the patient ever turned down as a blood donor?

Endocrine: The patient should be questioned about sexual maturation and development, weight change, tolerance to heat or cold (esp. with respect to other persons in the same environment), dryness of hair and skin, hair loss, and voice change. Any change in the rate of beard growth in men, development of facial hair in women, increase in or loss of libido, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, pruritus, diabetes, exophthalmos, goiter, unexplained flushing, and sweating should be noted.

Nervous system.: Has the patient experienced any recent change in ability to control muscular activity, or any syncope, stroke (shock), seizures, tremor, coordination, sensory disturbance, falls, pain, change in memory, dizziness, or head trauma?

Emotional and psychological status: Has there been a history of psychiatric illness, anxiety, depression, overactivity, mania, lassitude, change in sleep pattern, insomnia, hypersomnia, nightmares, sleepwalking, hallucinations, feeling of unreality, paranoia, phobias, obsessions, compulsions, criminal behavior, increase in or loss of libido, or suicidal thoughts? Is the patient satisfied with his or her occupation and with life in general? What is his or her marital and divorce record? Has there been family discord? Does the patient attend religious services? The patient's employment history and any recent job changes, educational history and achievement, and self-image should be assessed.

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