retrograde

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retrograde

 [ret´ro-grād]
1. moving backward or against the usual direction of flow.
2. degenerating, deteriorating, or catabolic.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād),
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
3. Used in neuroscience to describe distal-proximal flow, movement, or transport in an axon toward its cell body, or degeneration of an axon proximal to a point of injury, such degenerative changes may extend to, and include, the cell body.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro- + gradior, to go]

retrograde

/ret·ro·grade/ (ret´ro-grād) going backward; retracing a former course; catabolic.

retrograde

[ret′rəgrād]
Etymology: L, retro + gradus, step
1 moving backward; moving in the opposite direction to that which is considered normal.
2 degenerating; reverting to an earlier state or worse condition.
3 catabolic.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]

retrograde

A going backwards or a reversion of the usual sequence.

ret·ro·grade

(ret'rō-grād)
1. Moving backward.
2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development.
[L. retrogradus, fr. retro-, back + gradior, to go]

retrograde,

v to move backward, degenerate, or return to an earlier state or worse condition.

retrograde

going backward; retracting a former course; catabolic.

retrograde pyelography
radiography of the kidney after introduction of contrast medium through the ureter.
References in periodicals archive ?
The injected toxin moves retrogradely and reaches the neuromuscular junction.
Since we could not advance any catheter and guidewires retrogradely from the descending to the ascending aorta, radial artery puncture was performed and a catheter was placed antegradely at the distal of the left subclavian artery.
Dual A-V nodal pathways typically come to medical attention when a patient presents with A-V nodal reentrant tachycardia, which most often begins with an atrial premature complex that blocks in the fast pathway, is conducted down the slow pathway, and then returns retrogradely up the fast pathway that is no longer refractory.
Optical monitoring of activity from individual and identified populations of neurons retrogradely labeled with voltage-sensitive dyes.
Then, hearts were rapidly removed, mounted on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus, and retrogradely perfused with [Ca.
In brief, the rat hearts were isolated and retrogradely perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) buffer equilibrated with 95% [O.
If the fast pathway ceases to be refractory while the impulse is still traversing the slow A-V nodal pathway, the impulse may travel retrogradely over the fast pathway to reach the atria, thus producing an atrial echo beat.
The relatively steep learning curve of axillary vein puncture is an issue, and innovations in the axillary vein puncture have been proposed recently, such as using the cephalic vein as anatomic landmark,[sup][19] introducing guidewire retrogradely from the femoral vein up to the left axillary vein as roadmap,[sup][20] and utilizing the caudal fluoroscopic view.
After a midline sternotomy, the hearts were rapidly excised and perfused retrogradely at a constant perfusion pressure of 80 mmHg with a modified Krebs' solution containing NaCl (120 mM), [NaHCO.
After the heart was cleaned of surrounding tissues, the aorta was immediately tied to a stainless steel cannula of the perfusion system, and the heart was perfused retrogradely by noncirculating Langendorff technique (23).