retrograde memory

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Related to retrograde memory: anterograde memory, Short term memory

ret·ro·grade mem·o·ry

memory for events and experience, before a given timepoint or sudden cerebral disturbance (for example, stroke, trauma). Compare: retrograde amnesia.


(mem'o-re) [L. memoria]
1. The mental registration, retention, and recollection of past experiences, sensations, or thoughts. This group of functions relies on the coordinated activities of the association regions of the cerebral cortex, specific sensory areas of the brain, subcortical centers, the hypothalamus, the midbrain, and a wide array of neurochemicals and neurotransmitters. Injury or damage to any of these regions of the brain (e.g., as a result of intoxication, stroke, atrophy, or infection) impairs the ability to incorporate new memories or recall and use earlier ones.
2. The capacity of the immune system to respond to antigens to which it has previously been exposed. Immunological memory depends on the activities of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, major histocompatibility molecules, adhesion molecules, chemokines, and many other biochemicals.

anterograde memory

Anterograde amnesia.

declarative memory

The conscious recollection of learned information. It is a memory function that is improved by the association of learning with highly charged emotional experiences.
Synonym: explicit memory

episodic memory

The ability to recall discrete events (e.g., in one's personal history).

explicit memory

Declarative memory.

false memory

An inaccurate or incomplete remembrance of a past event. Memory accuracy, validity, and reliability are affected by the following factors: age; serious illness, injury, or psychological trauma; prolonged medication therapy or use of a substance of abuse; mental retardation; mental illness; anxiety; preoccupation; fatigue; guilt and fear of penalty; coercion; or incentive to testify falsely. These factors must be considered in the evaluation of the reliability of patient-reported memories.

immediate memory

Memory for events or information in the last few hours or days. Brain damage that limits one's ability to store new information may impair immediate memory but have no effect on memories of the distant past.
Synonym: short-term memory See: digit span test

impaired memory

A state in which a person is unable to remember or recall bits of information or behavioral skills. Impaired memory may be attributed to pathophysiological or situational causes that are either temporary or permanent.

implicit memory

Recall that is preserved when the patient is given a cue to help retrieve information but deficient without such cues.
Synonym: nondeclarative memory

incidental memory

The mental storage of information that occurs passively (i.e., without conscious effort).

long-term memory

Recall of experiences or of information acquired in the distant past.

It includes both explicit memory and procedural memory.

nondeclarative memory

Implicit memory.

procedural memory

The ability to recall how to perform activities or functions, e.g., how to brush one's teeth or ride a skateboard. This type of memory is often preserved when other memory functions are lost.
See: declarative memory

recovered memory

A memory recalled after having been forgotten. Recall may be the result of psychotherapy or suggestion. Not all instances of recovered memory are accurate (some are the result of suggestion).
See: false memory

remote memory

Recollection of information that was stored in the distant past.

retrograde memory

Retrograde amnesia.

selective memory

The recollection only of particular aspects of an event or experience; limited recall.

short-term memory

Immediate memory.

sensory memory

The momentary storage in the brain of images or sensations just felt, heard, seen, smelled, or tasted. Sensory memories typically last only a few seconds.

spatial memory

The ability to recall three-dimensional objects or places, e.g., the location of an object in space, the position of one object in relation to another, or the correct path through a maze.

topographic memory

1. The ability to recall the contours, design, shape, or structure of a previously experienced environment.
2. The ability to hold in the mind a map of a person, place, or thing.

working memory

The ability to store and use those facts and ideas necessary for performing immediate tasks.
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