are up in part because publishers now use software to detect plagiarism and multiple publication of the same research.
The paper's findings show as a percentage of all scientific articles published, retractions
for fraud or suspected fraud have increased 10-fold since 1975.
Initially she was charged with perverting the course of justice on the basis of making a false complaint, but she later asserted that it was the retraction
, rather than the rape allegation, which was false.
As the number of medical studies increases, it is not unexpected that retractions
have also increased.
As expected, the team found stronger retractions
were effective in reducing the effects associated with strong misinformation encoding; but they failed to eliminate it even when the misinformation was weakly encoded.
are also used to alert readers to cases of redundant publication (i.
01), a significantly greater percentage of retractions
in the tympanostomy-treated ears were mild and situated in the anterior part of the tympanic membrane (52 vs.
In his book Papal Power (HarperCollins, 1997), Collins alleges the CDF "still accepts anonymous accusations, hardly ever deals directly with the person accused, demands retractions
and imposes silences, and continues to employ third-rate theologians as its assessors.
Even Nussbaum, who says he realizes such prominent and detailed retractions
are extremely rare, wonders what the fuss is about.
All of Hollinger's direct and indirect interest in the shares of Class A Common Stock of Hollinger International are being held in escrow in support of future retractions
of its Series II Preference Shares.
It is my experience that demanding retractions
from dishonorable people only leads to dishonorable retractions
We found that anterior and inferior pars tensa lesions, with or without squamous debris, can be successfully reduced, but that posterosuperior retractions
respond less well when the ossicular chain has been eroded.